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Lateinschule

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
Koerrenz, Ralf [English version] A. Begriff (RWG) Der Begriff L. ist vom Referenzgegenstand aus nicht eindeutig geklärt. Zum einen können damit jene im 12. und 13. Jh. auf Initiative der Städte entstandenen Schulen bezeichnet werden, die im Gegensatz zu den kirchlich fixierten Institutionen der Dom- und Klosterschulen die Vermittlung der lat. Sprache primär um der ökonomischen und polit. Kommunikation willen pflegten. Systematisch betrachtet, kann jedoch zum anderen danach gefragt werden, in welchen in…

National Education

(390 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Ger. Volksbildungswesen) denotes the institutions that organize learning processes either for all members of society (“Ministry of National Education”) or, more narrowly, for adults (Education of adults). In the context of the Enlightenment (I, 3.e), the 18th century saw the emergence of reading societies, moral weeklies, and patriotic societies, which can be interpreted as the start of national education. In the 19th century, the changes brought by the industrial revolution (Indu…

Progressive Education

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] I. Progressive Education as a Phenomenon of Reception As a term for the intersection of the theories and practices of education and “formation” (education/ formation), education reform is a construct which may vary greatly as to the criteria of its contents and the period to which it may apply. This is a phenomenon of reception, and its variations always reflect the recipients’ standards. When the assumption of a historical context is made, clear differences arise in determining when edu…

Dörpfeld, Friedrich Wilhelm

(533 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1824, Wermelskirchen – Oct 27, 1893, Ronsdorf/Wuppertal). ¶ Dörpfeld's significance for education extends to the areas of teaching in practice, its content, and school organization. The latter aspect, his theory of school organization, in particular, is also theologically significant to the extent that it mirrors a pedagogical transformation of Reformed-Presbyterian principles of congregational organization (Presbyter/Presbytery: III). The course of Dörpfeld's life after his schooling was marked by his multi-staged training as a public school ( Vol…

Harnisch, Christian Wilhelm

(276 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1787, Wilsnack – Aug 15, 1864, Berlin). After concluding his theological studies in Halle and Frankfurt an der Oder, Harnisch turned to education and became a teacher at the Plamann Institute for Education in Berlin. Critical engagement with the work of J.H. Pestalozzi became characteristic of his school practice and writing, beginning with Deutsche Volksschulen mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Pestalozzischen Grundsätze (German public schools with attention to the principles of Pestalozzi, 1812). Since 1812, as the first teacher in …

Nohl, Herman

(397 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Oct 7, 1879, Berlin – Sep 27, 1960, Göttingen). After school and university studies (history, philosophy, Ger. lit.) in Berlin, Nohl gained his doctorate under W. Dilthey (1904) on “Socrates and Ethics.” His Habilitation in Jena on “The Worldviews of Painting” (1908) marked the beginning of his activity there as Privatdozent (until 1919/1920), which was interrupted by his participation in World War I (1915–1918). In 1920 came his appointment to a chair at Göttingen University, where he remained until reaching emeritus status. Hi…

Litt, Theodor

(419 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Dec 27, 1880, Düsseldorf – Jul 16, 1962, Bonn). Every human being is part of the specific historical context of a community. For Litt, this historicality was the starting point of his inquiry into the special tasks of upbringing and education (Education/Formation) as paths leading to the respective present. In addition to his interest in what is historically relevant, he was also interested in the “discussion of the basic educational problem,” in which the intention and the goal …

Campe, Joachim Heinrich

(291 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1746, Deensen/Braunschweig – Oct 22, 1818, Braunschweig). Having received instruction from a private tutor and subsequently attended the local village school as well as the monastery school in Holzminden, Campe began studying Protestant theology at Helmstedt and Halle in 1765. After the completion of his studies, he found employment as a preacher in Potsdam, but also as a tutor in the household of the chamberlain Georg v. Humboldt, whose two so…

Rein, Wilhelm

(198 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1847, Eisenach – Feb 19, 1929, Jena). After studying Protestant theology and educational theory, Rein taught in Barmen and Weimar before becoming director of the teachers’ seminary in Eisenach. After his appointment as honorary professor at Jena in 1886 (made full professor in 1912), he became a central figure in university training of teachers in the Empire. He worked within the pedagogical tradition of J.F. Herbart’s disciples (“Herbartians”). The core of his educationa…

Dewey, John

(582 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1859, Burlington, VT – Jun 1, 1952, New York). The conception of pragmatism elaborated by Dewey is perhaps (along with J.F. Herbart's) the most significant example of a reciprocal determination of philosophy and pedagogy. It is built around a theory of teaching and learning developed under the heading of “experience.” The characteristic profile of Dewey'…

Weniger, Erich

(270 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1894, Steinhorst – May 2, 1961, Göttingen) received his habilitation at Göttingen in 1926 and taught there as an adjunct. From 1929 to 1933, he taught at the schools of education in Kiel, Altona, and Frankfurt am Main, in leadership positions at the latter two. Put on leave in 1933, after 1945 he taught at the school of education in Göttingen and after 1949 at the university. Between 1933 and 1945 he worked as a free-lance writer with a focus on military education, in a cozy relationship that appears problem-¶ atic in hindsight. As a member of the German Committ…

Monastery schools

(1,328 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG)
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] A. Definition (CT) A distinction must be made between the monastery school (MS) in the broader sense ('monastery as school') and the narrower one. The differentiating criterion consists in the means and methods by which learning was conducted, and the purpose of that learning. In the broader sense, the entire institution of the monastery may be described as a school in which learning was controlled by social, temporal and spatial rules. This is contrasted with t…

Cathedral School

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG)
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Schools established in the centres of power and organisation of bishoprics for the primary purpose of training diocesan clerics. Beyond that, they also fulfilled an important educational function for the maintaining of the political structure through the so-called schola exterior. Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] B. Chronology (CT) Since the mid-8th cent. the function of the Cathedral School (CS) had been programmatically as well as organisationally established in the interplay bet…

Latin school

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG)
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) The term 'Latin school' (LS) is not unambiguously clarified by its term of reference. On the one hand, it can be used to designate the schools that arose in the 12th and 13th cents. at the initiative of the towns, which, unlike the ecclesiastically-focused institutions of the cathedral and monastery schools, cultivated the transmission of the Latin language primarily for the sake of economic and political communication. On the other hand, how…

Klosterschule

(1,125 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena) RWG
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena) RWG [English version] A. Definition (RWG) Zu unterscheiden ist die K. im weiten Sinne (“Kloster als Schule”) von der K. im engeren Sinne. Das Differenzkriterium besteht in der Art und Weise, wie und mit welchen Zielsetzungen jeweils Lernen inszeniert wurde. Im weiten Sinne kann die gesamte Institution des Klosters als Schule bezeichnet werden, in der das Lernen durch soziale, zeitliche und räumliche Regeln gesteuert wird. Dem steht die K. im engeren Sinne gegenüber, in der das Lerne…

Domschule

(1,034 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena) RWG
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena) RWG [English version] A. Definition (RWG) An den polit.-rel. Macht- und Organisationszentren der Bischofssitze eingerichtete Schulen, die primär der Schulung des Diözesanklerus dienen sollten, darüber hinaus jedoch auch durch die sog. schola exterior eine bedeutende Ausbildungsfunktion für die Aufrechterhaltung der polit. Organisation erfüllten. Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena) RWG [English version] B. Chronologie (RWG) Die Funktion der Institution D. hat sich im Spannungsfeld röm.-ant. Erbes einerseits und der Klosterschule andererseits …

Education, Theory of

(7,852 words)

Author(s): Nipkow, Karl Ernst | Koerrenz, Ralf | Tenorth, H.-Elmar | Schweitzer, Friedrich
[German Version] I. The Term – II. History – III. Present-Day Emphases – IV. Significance for Theology I. The Term The expression “theory of education” (or: “education theory and methodology” – Ger. Pädagogik) serves as a “collective term for all theoretical and practical endeavors in respect of education. As a theory, it refers to the essence of the teaching(s) or science(s) ‘about’ and ‘for’ education, and also to educationally significan…