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Lateinschule

(1,025 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
Koerrenz, Ralf [English version] A. Begriff (RWG) Der Begriff L. ist vom Referenzgegenstand aus nicht eindeutig geklärt. Zum einen können damit jene im 12…

National Education

(390 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Ger. Volksbildungswesen) denotes the institutions that organize learning processes either for all members of society (“Ministry of National Education”) or, more narrowly, for adults (Education of adults). In the context of the Enlightenment (I, 3.e), the 18th century saw the emergence of reading societies, moral weeklies, and patriotic societies, which can be interpreted as the start of national education. In the 19th century, t…

Progressive Education

(1,089 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] I. Progressive Education as a Phenomenon of Reception As a term for the intersection of the theories and practices of education and “formation” (education/ formation), education reform is a construct which may vary greatly as to the criteria of its contents and the period to which it may apply. This is a phenomenon of reception, and its variations always reflect the recipients’ standards. When the assumption of a historical context is made, clear differences arise in determining when …

Dörpfeld, Friedrich Wilhelm

(533 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1824, Wermelskirchen – Oct 27, 1893, Ronsdorf/Wuppertal). ¶ Dörpfeld's significance for education extends to the areas of teaching in practice, its content, and school organization. The latter aspect, his theory of school organization, in particular, is also theologically significant to the extent that it mirrors a pedagogical transformation of Reformed-Presbyterian principles of congregational organization (Presbyter/Presbytery: III). The course of Dörpfeld's life after his schooling was marked by his multi-staged training as a public school ( Vol…

Harnisch, Christian Wilhelm

(276 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1787, Wilsnack – Aug 15, 1864, Berlin). After concluding his theological studies in Halle and Frankfurt an der Oder, Harnisch turned to education and became a teacher at the Plamann Institute for Education in Berlin. Critical engagement with the work of J.H. Pestalozzi became characteristic of his school practice and writing, beginning with Deutsche Volksschulen mit besonderer Rücksicht auf die Pestalozzischen Grundsätze (German public schools with attention to the principles of Pestalozzi, 1812). Since 1812, as the first teacher in …

Nohl, Herman

(397 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Oct 7, 1879, Berlin – Sep 27, 1960, Göttingen). After school and university studies (history, philosophy, Ger. lit.) in Berlin, Nohl gained his doctorate under W. Dilthey (1904) on “Socrates and Ethics.” His Habilitation in Jena on “The Worldviews of Painting” (1908) marked the beginning of his activity there as Privatdozent (until 1919/1920), which was interrupted by his participation in World War I (1915–1918). In 1920 came his appointment to a chair at Göttingen University, where he remained until reaching emeritus status. Hi…

Litt, Theodor

(419 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Dec 27, 1880, Düsseldorf – Jul 16, 1962, Bonn). Every human being is part of the specific historical context of a community. For Litt, this historicality was the starting point of his inquiry into the special tasks of upbringing and education (Education/Formation) as paths leading to the respective present. In addition to his interest in what is historically relevant, he was also interested in the “discussion of the basic educational problem,” in which the intention and the goal …

Weniger

(235 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[English Version] Weniger, Erich (11.9.1894 Steinhorst – 2.5.1961 Göttingen). Nach Habil. (1926) und Assistenz in Göttingen wirkte W. von 1929 bis 1933 an den Päd. Akademien in Kiel sowie in leitender Funktion in Altona und Frankfurt/M. 1933 aus dem Amt beurlaubt, war er nach 1945 in Göttingen (Päd. Hochschule, ab 1949 Universität) als Hochschullehrer tätig. In der Zeit von 1933 bis 1945 wirkte er in einer aus heutiger Sicht problematischen Systemnähe als freier Publizist mit einem Schwerpunkt im B…

Nohl

(347 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[English Version] Nohl, Herman (7.10.1879 Berlin – 27.9.1960 Göttingen). Nach Schulzeit und Studium (Gesch., Philos., dt. Lit.) in Berlin promovierte N. bei W. Dilthey 1904 über »Sokrates und die Ethik«. Mit der Habil. über »Die Weltanschauungen der Malerei« in Jena (1908) begann dort seine bis 1919/20 währende Tätigkeit als PD, die 1915 bis 1918 durch die Teilnahme am 1. Weltkrieg unterbrochen wurde. 1920 erfolgte der Ruf an die Universität Göttingen, an der er bis zu seiner Emeritierung wirkte. E…

Reformpädagogik

(890 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[English Version] I. Reformpädagogik als Rezeptionsphänomen R. ist als Kennzeichnung eines Zusammenhangs von Theorien und Praktiken der Erziehung und Bildung ein Konstrukt, dessen inhaltliche Kriterien und zeitliche Eingrenzungen stark variieren können. Es handelt sich um ein Rezeptionsphänomen, in dessen Varianten sich immer auch Normvorstellungen der Rezipienten spiegeln. Wenn von einem hist. Zusammenhang ausgegangen wird, gibt es bei der Bestimmung von Anfang und Ende der R. sowie des Personenkrei…

Volksbildungswesen

(336 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[English Version] bez. die Institutionen zur Organisation von Lernprozessen entweder für alle Mitglieder einer Gesellschaft (»Ministerium für Volksbildung«) oder – enger gefaßt – für Erwachsene (Erwachsenenbildung). Im 18.Jh. entstanden im Kontext der Aufklärung (: I.,3., e) Lesegesellschaften, Moralische Wochenschriften und Patriotische Gesellschaften, die als Ausgangspunkte des V. interpretiert werden können. Im 19.Jh. wurden angesichts der Verän…

Rein

(161 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[English Version] Rein, Wilhelm (10.8.1847 Eisenach – 19.2.1929 Jena). Nach Studium der Ev. Theol. und Päd. sowie einer Lehrertätigkeit in Barmen und Weimar wurde R. 1876 Seminardirektor in Eisenach. Mit der Berufung zum Hon.-Prof. 1886 nach Jena (o.Prof. 1912) wurde er zu einer zentralen Figur der universitären Lehrerbildung im Kaiserr…

Campe, Joachim Heinrich

(291 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Jun 29, 1746, Deensen/Braunschweig – Oct 22, 1818, Braunschweig). Having received instruction from a private tutor and subsequently attended the local village school as well as the monastery school in Holzminden, Campe began studying Protestant theology at Helmstedt and Halle in 1765. After the completion of his stud…

Rein, Wilhelm

(198 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1847, Eisenach – Feb 19, 1929, Jena). After studying Protestant theology and educational theory, Rein taught in Barmen and Weimar before becoming director of the teachers’ seminary in Eisenach. After his appointment as honorary professor at Jena in 1886 (made full professor in 1912), he became a central figure in university training of teachers in the Empire. He worked within the pedagogical tradition of J.F. Herbart’s disciples (“Herbartians”). The core of his educationa…

Dewey, John

(582 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Oct 20, 1859, Burlington, VT – Jun 1, 1952, New York). The conception of pragmatism elaborated by Dewey is perhaps (along with J.F. Herbart's) the most significant example of a reciprocal determination of philosophy and pedagogy. It is built around a theory of teaching and learning developed under the heading of “exper…

Weniger, Erich

(270 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1894, Steinhorst – May 2, 1961, Göttingen) received his habilitation at Göttingen in 1926 and taught there as an adjunct. From 1929 to 1933, he taught at the schools of education in Kiel, Altona, and Frankfurt am Main,…

Monastery schools

(1,328 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG)
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] A. Definition (CT) A distinction must be made between the monastery school (MS) in the broader sense ('monastery as school') and the narrower one. The differentiating criterion consists in the means and methods by which learning was conducted, and the purpose of that learning. In the broader sense, the entire institution of the monastery may be described as a school in which learning was controlled by social, temporal and spatial rules. This is contrasted with t…

Cathedral School

(1,201 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG)
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Schools established in the centres of power and organisation of bishoprics for the primary purpose of training diocesan clerics. Beyond that, they also fulfilled an important educational function for the maintaining of the political structure through the so-called schola exterior. Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] B. Chronology (CT) Since the mid-8th cent. the function of the Cathedral School (CS) had been programmatically as well as organisationally established in the interplay bet…

Latin school

(1,366 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG)
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena RWG) [German version] A. Terminology (CT) The term 'Latin school' (LS) is not unambiguously clarified by its term of reference. On the one hand, it can be used to designate the schools that arose in the 12th and 13th cents. at the initiative of the towns, which, unlike the ecclesiastically-focused institutions of the cathedral and monastery schools, cultivated the transmission of the Latin language primarily for the sake of economic and political communication. On the other hand, how…

Klosterschule

(1,125 words)

Author(s): Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena) RWG
Koerrenz, Ralf (Jena) RWG [English version] A. Definition (RWG) Zu unterscheiden ist die K. im weiten Sinne (“Kloster als Schule”) von der K. im engeren Sinne. Das Differenzkriterium besteht in der Art und Weise, wie und mit welchen Zielsetzungen jeweils Lernen inszeniert wurde. Im weiten Sinne kann die gesamte Institution des Klosters als Schule bezeichnet werden, in der das Lernen durch soziale, zeitliche und räumliche Regeln gesteuert wird. Dem steht die K. im engeren Sinne gegenüber, in der das Lerne…
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