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Revolution and Restoration - Revolution

(2,952 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
Part of Revolution and Restoration: 1. Revolution 2. Restorative Tendencies 1. Revolution as a political and historical notion. In constitutional law, revolution is the overthrow of an existing system of government (and law) by means not recognized as legitimate in the system in question, and the establishment of a new system. Revolution is therefore a breach of the law, but where it succeeds it sets up a new order equally binding juridically. Hence revolution is beyond positive law and is primarily envisaged in social and historical studies. If revolution is regarded as a basic s…


(896 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
1. Totalitarianism is a term applied as a rule indifferently to all systems of total control of individual and social life by the State. It is therefore formally speaking a type of society in which the essential dialectical interplay of spontaneous interaction, and social condition as a pre-established form of interaction, has ceased to be an equilibrium. A given form of social self-interpretation predominates exclusively and consistently and is rigidly institutionalized in fixed systems of administration, public order and the linguistic media of self-interpretation. 2. The usu…

Revolution and Restoration - Restorative Tendencies

(1,767 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
Part of Revolution and Restoration: 1. Revolution 2. Restorative Tendencies The word “Restoration” in English generally means the re-establishment of the Stuart monarchy under Charles II in 1660. As a general term, restoration came into use in political history and theory in the 19th century on the continent, to indicate the epoch of conservative reaction to the French Revolution between the Congress of Vienna (1814–15) and the revolution of 1848, It has since been used as a counterpart tó “revolution” to…


(2,216 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
1. The concept of the Renaissance. G. Vasari in the 16th century was the first to describe the new tendency in Italian artistic life since the 14th century as rinascitá (the original form of the French renaissance), that is, as the “rebirth” of the tradition of the art of Graeco-Roman antiquity. This had already been understood to be a regeneratio, restauratio or restitutio of classical standards. As a result, the term “Renaissance” was used in modern historiography from Voltaire and J. J. Brucker onwards in a wider sense to denote the setting up by the Hu…

Liberalism and Liberal Theology

(3,955 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
A. Origins and Social Meaning of Liberalism (19th Century) Liberalism, which dominated much of the thought and social endeavour of European middle-class life in the 19th century, stemmed in the main from the great spiritual impulses of the 17th century which are only partly comprised by the Enlightenment and the French Revolution. There was the broader, more general recognition that freedom gave man the chance and the task of self-determination, while this responsible “self” on which so much depended was…

Humanism - General

(3,124 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
Part of Humanism: 1. General 2. Anthropocentrism 1. History of humanism. Humanism as the deliberate effort to justify the Renaissance arose in the 14th and 15th centuries as an intellectual movement among the nobility, especially the merchant aristocracy of the Italian city-states. Within the traditional framework of the medieval order, this new social class did not regard itself as bound to any existing pattern of life and could therefore develop its courtly patrician style of life into an original and a…

Society - The Social Group

(2,484 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
Part of Society: 1. The Social Group 2. Fellowship 3. Common Good 4. Public Opinion 1. The problem of definition. Society — to give a preliminary verbal definition — is the totality of interactions between individuals, no matter how combined, insofar as this totality constitutes a system with its own internal processes, the development therefore (whether naturally or artificially) of a unified relationship between a number of people. As such a unified relationship between human beings, between beings, that is, who…


(1,948 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
1. Meaning. Rationalism is a self-understanding of the spirit which defines itself on the one hand by the positive content of its spiritual existence, and on the other hand, by the type of reflection in which conscious being gives an account of itself. In the latter sense, the rationalistic mentality, the temper of a whole epoch, is characterized by the effort to reduce the whole spiritual being to concepts in a conclusive and perspicuous coherence — as Wittgenstein said, whatever can be said at …


(2,273 words)

Author(s): Konrad Hecker
Jansenism, a movement within the Catholic Church of the 17th and 18th centuries, especially in France and the Netherlands, represents one effort to solve the problem with which all Christian life is faced — that of reconciling the fundamental antagonisms inherent in Christianity. There is the acceptance of the world which has as its counterpart a condemnation of the world, and there is the necessity of working out one’s salvation responsibly while always knowing it to be a freely bestowed gift, …