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Iraq

(974 words)

Author(s): Koszinowski, Thomas
1. Geography and Economy Iraq’s population is mostly Arabs, with about 23 percent Kurds. The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers create favorable conditions for agriculture, which is but poorly developed. Oil is the most important economic factor. It brought in 26 billion dollars in 1980 and is the basis of a large-scale development program. As a result of the Gulf Wars and the economic boycott imposed by the United Nations since 1990, however, this program largely came to a standstill. 2. Political Development

Jordan

(624 words)

Author(s): Koszinowski, Thomas
1. Geography and Economy The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is poor in resources, with desert occupying most of its area. Only phosphate and potash are of economic significance, followed by tourism and light industries. Although for a time Jordan could not support itself agriculturally because of low and irregular precipitation, yet with modern technology it somehow overcame its lack of water and is producing a variety of vegetables and fruits. Getting enough water, however, remains one of the chief pr…

Kuwait

(678 words)

Author(s): Koszinowski, Thomas
1. Geography and Economy The economy of the State of Kuwait is based on oil, which in 2000 accounted for nearly 75 percent of government income. In the same year Kuwait maintained ¶ an average production of 2.1 million barrels of crude oil per day and had 10 percent of the world’s oil reserves. In 2000 Kuwaiti Arabs constituted only 37 percent of the total population. The rest were Arabs from other places (24.6 percent, esp. from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, and Palestine); Bidoon (lit. “without”), or stateless Arab refugees struggling to gain recognition…

Qatar

(735 words)

Author(s): Koszinowski, Thomas | Editors, the
1. General Situation The State of Qatar lies along the peninsula of the same name on the east coast of the Arabian Peninsula. East Arab Bedouin tribes began to settle there in the 18th century. Among them the Al Thani family played a leading role from the end of the 19th century. In 1872 the territory came under Ottoman rule with a Turkish garrison in Doha, the capital. When the Turks left at the beginning of World War I, Qatar became a British protectorate. By a treaty concluded in 1916, Britain took over responsibility for its defense and foreign policy (Colonialism). 1.1. Britain left the gulf in 1970, and Qatar achieved full independence in September 1971. By the provisional constitution of 1970 the emir is the executive, ruling through a cabinet that he appoints, which is made up mostly of members of the ruling family. An advisory council of 35 members nominated by the emir has had legislative power. Succession rests with the Al Thani family. The present ruler, Emir Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani, ousted his father, Emir Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, in a bloodless coup in 1995. In municipal elections held in March 1999, women participated for the f…