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Dion

(2,219 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Et al.
[German version] I. Persons (Δίων; Díōn) Meister, Klaus (Berlin) [German version] [I 1] Close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy Son of Hipparinus, brother-in-law and son-in-law of Dionysius I of Syracuse, b. 409 BC, close friend of Plato and defender of his philosophy since Plato's first visit to Syracuse in 388. He gained prestige and wealth as Dionysius' I' trusted friend and advisor and also remained an influential person under Dionysius II. In 366, he arbitrated the peace with Carthage and called Pl…

Sycurium

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Συκύριον; Sykýrion). Place in the Dotium region at the western end of the Tempe valley, used by Perseus [2] as a permanent camp for actions against the Roman army in the third of the Macedonian Wars, in 171 BC (Liv. 42,54; 62; 64; 67). The location is uncertain, the assignment of the name to modern S. (formerly Makrokeserli) is arbitrary. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography H. Kramolisch, s.v. Sykyrion, in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 644f.

Scotussa

(125 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Σκοτοῦσσα/ Skotoûssa). City in Pelasgiotis in Thessaly, about 20 km to the west of Pherae at modern Skotoússa. (earlier Supli; Cynoscephalae). Attested by finds, remains and myth as very ancient, its first period of prosperity came to an end when the population was massacred by Alexander [15] of Pherae in 367 BC (Diod. 15,75,1; Paus. 6,5,2 f.). S. was not insignificant under Macedonian rule (Pol. 18,20,2-6; Liv. 33,6,8), and in the Thessalian League after 197 (Liv. 36,9,3). After …

Sesklo

(171 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] Village, about 10 km to the north of the Pagasetic Gulf on the threshold of the Plain of Thessaly. The place of settlement, which has been excavated there since 1905, gave its name to a long prehistoric epoch of Greece (6th-4th millennia BC). It had been settled since the pre-ceramic Neolithic, and flourished with up to 3000 inhabitants in the middle Neolithic. Typical of the culture of S. are rectangular houses, a central megaron building and a special pottery (finds in the archa…

Galates

(56 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ Γαλάτης; Galátēs). Plut. Phocion 33,4 mentions G. as the then current name for the Acrurium mountains, part of the  Callidromus range, on whose southern slopes Phocion and Polyperchon met in 318 BC. The change of name is perhaps linked to the invasion by the Celts in 279 BC. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)

Mopsium

(77 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μόψιον; Mópsion). Town and hill in the Thessalian territory of Pelasgiotis. In 171 BC, it served Perseus for a time as an advance base out of the Tempe Valley for attacks on the Romans in the Plain of Larisa [3] (Liv. 42,61,11; 65,1; 67,1: Mopselus). M. may possibly be equated with the town ruins at Makrichori, approx. 25 km north west of Larisa. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography F. Stählin, s.v. M. (1), RE 16, 236-240.

Ion

(1,095 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἴων; Íōn). [German version] [1] Hero of the Ionians Eponymous hero of the Ionians ( Iones). Several traditions of his ancestry emphasizing Athens' political primacy are extant. The earliest and most influential versions present I. as the son of  Xuthus and Creusa, thus as the grandson of  Hellen, progenitor of the Hellenes, and of the Athenian king  Erechtheus (Str. 8,383; Paus. 7,1,2). I.'s brother is Achaeus [1], progenitor of the Achaeans, his paternal uncles are  Aeolus [1] and  Dorus. With his wife…

Phalara

(83 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Natural catastrophes (τὰ Φάλαρα; tà Phálara). Town of the Malieis, port serving Lamia [2] on the Malian Gulf, probably present-day Stilida. Destroyed by an earthquake in 426 BC (Str. 1,3,20); after its reconstruction, it was again an important harbour town (cf. Str. 9,5,13). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography E. Kirsten, s.v. P., RE 19, 1647  F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 217f.  K. Braun, R. Scheer, s.v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 533.

Pelium

(176 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πήλιον; Pḗlion). A mountain range, extending on a north-west to south-east axis and consisting of various slates and chalks, demarcating Thessaly (Thessalians, Thessalia) in the east and, in Antiquity, forming the peninsula of Magnesia [1] from the Ossa [1] to the foothills of Sepia. In Antiquity, P. referred in a narrower sense to the highest peak (Pliassidi; 1624 m). The easterly slope to the sea is precipitous and entirely without harbours, and was feared by ancient navigators…

Onchestus

(316 words)

Author(s): Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀγχηστός/ Onchēstós). [German version] [1] Site, mentioned in Homer, of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon This item can be found on the following maps: Boeotia, Boeotians Site, already mentioned in Homer (Hom. Il. 2,506; H. Hom. ad Apollinem 229-238; H. Hom. ad Mercurium 185-188), of a common Boeotian sanctuary to Poseidon, whose origins may stretch back as far as the Mycenaean period [3]. Initially O. probably belonged to Thebes and from the 5th cent. BC to Haliartus; in the Hellenistic period O. was the political…

Pindus

(412 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range (ὁ/ἡ Πίνδος; ho/hē Píndos). In antiquity, P. denoted only the central part of the huge, almost inaccessible wall of mountains traversing the whole of north and central Greece from north to south in a series of chains, most of which are over 2000 m in elevation, south of the Zygos Pass (Metsovo Pass, el. 1650 m) and west of Thessaly (Thessalians), dividing the river basins of the Peneius in the east and the Achelous [1] in the west. The mountain ranges to the north of …

Thebes

(6,143 words)

Author(s): Quack, Joachim (Berlin) | Fell, Martin (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Klodt, Claudia (Hamburg) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Et al.
[German version] [1] City in the 4th upper Egyptian nome This item can be found on the following maps: Egypt | Commerce | Egypt The Egyptian Thebes, city in the 4th upper Egyptian nome. Quack, Joachim (Berlin) [German version] I. Names Actually Ws.t ('the strong'), from which derived, no later than the 17th dynasty, a female personification Ws.t nḫt.tj ('victorious Thebes'). Beginning with the Middle Kingdom ( c. 1990-1630 BC), often called simply njw.t, 'the city (par excellence)' - from which also the Hebrew form no (Ez 30:14 f.; Jer 46:25; Nahum 3:8) and Assyrian Ne [10. 260] -- o…

Thetideion

(86 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θετίδειον; Thetídeion). Sanctuary to Thetis in the territory of Pharsalus. Shortly before the battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC the Roman and Macedonian armies camped near there (Pol. 18,20; Liv. 33,6,10). The location is problematic: the area near Dasolophos (formerly Bekides), on the basis of the route of the march, and the lands around modern Thetidion (formerly Alchami), because of ancient remains, are possibilities. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J.-C. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 205-207  F. Stählin, s. v. Th., RE…

Glaphyrae

(127 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Γλαφύραι; Glaphýrai). The catalogue of ships of the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,711ff.) mentions the town together with  Boebe and  Iolcus. Its mythological founder was Glaphyros, son of Magnes and father of Boibos. In historical time, the ethnic term Γλαφυρεύς ( Glaphyreús) is documented for officials from  Demetrias [1]. Therefore, it can be assumed that G. existed until the Hellenistic period, although Str. 9,15,5 does not mention G. at the Synoikismos for Demetrias. The exact location of G. at the southern bank of the former Boebe Lake is not certain. Kramolisch, Herwig (E…

Olympias

(742 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Brändle, Rudolf (Basle) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ὀλυμπιάς; Olympiás). [German version] [1] Daughter of Neoptolemus Daughter of Neoptolemus [2], born in about 375 BC. She was not given the name O. until after the Olympic victory of Philippus II in 356 BC (cf. Plut. Mor. 401b). She married Philip in 357 as his fifth wife (Ath. 13,557b) and bore him Alexander [4] the Great (356) and Cleopatra [II 3]. The birth of a successor elevated O.'s status, but there is no evidence of any political influence. After Philip's marriage to Cleopatra [II 2] she fled to…

Iton

(378 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (ὁ/ἡ Ἴτων; ho/hē Ítōn, Ἴτωνος; Ítōnos). One of the oldest Greek cities, within the Thessalian core territory of Tetras Thessaliotis (Str. 9,5,14) in the valley of the Curalios/Cuarius, a right tributary of the  Peneius. Within its territory was the Thessalian tribal sanctuary of Athena Itonia (Str. 9,5,17). Because of an erroneous distance given by Strabo (9,5,8), the city and its sanctuary were thought to be near  Halus (Achaea Phthiotis) [1; 2; 3], but excavations near modern Philia have verified their location c. 16 km south-east of Karditsa and c. 10 km upriver o…

Arne

(215 words)

Author(s): Freitag, Klaus (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Ἄρνη; Árnē). [German version] [1] Boeotian settlement Boeotian settlement (Hom. Il. 2,507). According to Str. 1,3,18; 9,2,34-35, A. was either equated with  Acraephia, or believed to have been drowned by  L. Copais. According to other sources, A. was the ancient name of  Chaeronea (Paus. 9,40,5; Steph. Byz. s.v. Χαιρώνεια). It is probably not identical with the fortress of Gla which had been abandoned in the late Mycenaean period [1].  Boeotia Freitag, Klaus (Münster) Bibliography 1 F. Noack, A., in: MDAI (A) 19, 1894, 405-485. J. M. Fossey, Papers in Boiotian Topography and H…

Myrae

(53 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μύραι/ Mýrai, Scyl. 65; or to be corrected to Εὐρέα[ι]/ Euréa[i]? Cf. [1]). Town in the north of the peninsula of Magnesia [1], south of Homole, location unknown. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography     1 J.A.W. Warren, Two Notes on Thessalian Coins, in: NC 7,1, 1961, 1-8. F. Stählin, s.v. M., RE 16, 1089.

Limnaeum

(88 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Λιμναῖον; Limnaîon, Latin Limnaeum). In 191 BC, the Romans and Philip V marched through eastern Thessaly to drive out Antiochus III and the Athamanians. During the siege of Pelinna, Philip also attacked L. which did not surrender until the Roman cavalry appeared (Liv. 36,13,9ff.). There is a lack of other information. L. has recently been localized near Vlochos above the swampy confluence region of the rivers Enipeus [2] and Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography J. Cl. Decourt, La vallée de l'Enipeus en Thessalie, 1990, 120f.

Othrys

(166 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ὄθρυς/ Óthrys). Range of mountains, c. 85 km long and 45 km wide, between the Malian Gulf and the Spercheus valley on one side and Thessalia on the other. The O. consists of several chains of mountains (slate, lime) and predominantly has the character of a low mountain range. To the south it falls of steeply in a straight edge, but to the north it is more structured. The greatest elevation is Yerakovouni (1726 m). Politically the region was part of Achaea Phthiotis (Achaei). The great…
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