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Oetaei

(179 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Οἰταῖοι/ Oitaîoi). A tribe which originally lived in the low sandstone, flisch and neogene zone to the south and east of the main ridge of the Oete in the direction of the central Greek regions of Doris and Locris. From there the O. gradually annexed the northern neighbouring regions; Heraclea [1], which was primarily founded to repulse them, was annexed in the 4th cent. BC, followed by the entire former Malian region as far as the Spercheus and Thermopylae. The O. were linked pol…

Pamisus

(240 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Παμισός; Pamisós). [German version] [1] Main River of the Region of Messana [2] Main river of the region of Messana [2], fed by three source rivers in the upper Messenian plain. In Antiquity the strong springs of Hagios Floros in the lower Messenian plain were considered to be the starting-point of the P., whence the river was called P. only from that point on. It is the river with most constantly abundant flow in the Peloponnese, and is navigable by boat a short distance from the mouth. At the Hagios Floros springs there was a sanctuary to P. with a small Doric templum in antis from the 6th cent…

Xyniae

(149 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ξυνίαι; Xyníai). City in Achaea Phthiotis in western Othrys, about 4 km southwest of modern X. (formerly Dauklí). X. lay 74 m above the southeastern shore of Lake Xynias and controlled the pass on the road from Lamia [2] to Thaumaci. X. was Aetolian from the middle of the 3rd cent. BC (at this time there was a definition of borders with the neighbouring city of Melitaea: IG IX 2, p. XI, no. 3), but at the end of the 3rd cent., X. was Macedonian. In 198 BC, after a massacre of its …

Pteleum

(300 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
(Πτελεόν; Pteleón). [German version] [1] Place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae Fortified place at the northern end of the bay of Erythrae [2], not located with certainty (Plin. HN 5,117; Steph. Byz. s. v. Π.). As a member of the Delian League (ATL 1,390 f.; 486; 2,82) P. was at times formally independent, but in fact it was dependent on Erythrae. P. is mentioned by Thuc. (8,24,2; 8,31,2) in connexion with the naval war in the waters around Miletus [2] and Chios in the winter of 412/1 BC (Peloponnesian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart) Bibliography J. Keil, P.…

Acharrae

(73 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀχάρραι; Achárrai). Town in north-western  Achaea Phthiotis, at the border with Dolopia ( Dolopes) and Thessaliotis ( Thessaly). A. was the mint for 4th/3rd-cents. BC bronze coins bearing the inscription Ἐκκαρρεων (HN 294); its exact location remains unclear. In the Second Macedonian War, A. surrendered in 198 BC to the  Aetolians during their advance into south-western Thessaly (Liv. 32,13,13; further sources in [1. 154 f.]). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography 1 F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924.

Phthiotis

(216 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Φθιῶτις/ Phthiôtis). Name of two regions which were not distinguished even in early ancient literature: 1) Thessalian P., the southern part of Thessaly, the area of Pharsalus (Hellanicus FGrH 4 F 52; Aristot. fr. 497; Str. 9,5,3); 2) Achaea P., bordering on 1) to the south and south-east, the area of the Othrys, the plain of Halmyrus and the northern bank of the Thermaikos Kolpos, including several cities (Scyl. 63; Hdt. 1,56; 7,132; Thuc. 1,3; Heracleides Creticus fr. 3,2; Scymn. 605; Str. 1,2,38; 9,5,1; 5,8-11; Pol. 18,20,5; Ptol. 3,13,46). As a region of períoikoi

Callithera

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Καλλιθήρα; Kallithḗra). Southern Thessalian town, the target of an Aetolian raid in 198 BC; they drove the inhabitants of C. back inside their walls, but were unable to capture the town (Liv. 32,13,11f.). Judging by the itinerary of the Aetolians, C. is not to be located near the modern Kallithira (formerly Seklitsa), but about 10 km south-east of it near Paliuri. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography B. Helly, Incursions chez les Dolopes, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 48-91, especially 77ff. F. Stählin…

Omphalium

(222 words)

Author(s): Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin)
(Ὀμφάλιον/ Omphálion). [German version] [1] Plain in Crete Plain (Diod. Sic. 5,70) on Crete in the area of Knossos on the river Triton (modern Platyperama; Callim. H. 1,42ff.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.). Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) Bibliography C. Bursian, Geographie von Griechenland, vol. 2, 1868, 570  M. Guarducci, Inscriptiones Creticae, vol. 1, 1935, 45f. [German version] [2] Place in Thessalia Place in Thessalia (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὀ.) near modern Lutra Smokovu, possibly the sanctuary of Omphale. The Dolopian cities of Angeae and Ctimenae fought over its possession [1]. Kramolisch,…

Iolcus

(355 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine (Ἰωλκός; Iōlkós). Already named in the most ancient legends (Aeson, Alcestis, Argonautae, Jason, Neleus, Peleus, Pelias). Residence city at the northern exit of the Gulf of  Pagasae on the Anaurus (modern Xerias). A large settlement mound in the old city of Volos (Kastro Volo) bears witness to continuity of settlement at the latest since the early Bronze Age - many Mycena…

Thaumaci

(168 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Θαυμακοί/ Thaumakoí). City in Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of the Othrys mountains, on one of the most important routes to Thessaly. Remains of walls and ceramic finds suggest an origin in the 4th cent. BC; the first literary sources refer to events in the 3rd cent. BC, when T. was part of the Aetolian League. T. is mentioned several times in the military conflicts between the Romans, the Aetolians and Philippus [7] V shortly after 200 BC (Liv. 32,4,1-7; 32,4,13; 36,14,…

Angeae

(93 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Ἀγγείαι; Angeíai). Town in south-east  Pindus within the settlement area of the  Dolopes, probably close to the modern Rentina. From the 2nd cent. BC, A. outmatched the main town of  Ctimenae in importance. In the course of the Second Macedonian War, it was captured by the  Aetolians in 198 BC (Liv. 32,13,10), but continued to exist (cf. Syll.3 692,10 of 130 BC). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography Y. Béquignon, La retraite de Philippe V. en 198 et l'incursion étolienne en Thessalie, in: BCH 52, 1928, 445 f. F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, …

Peirasia

(147 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Πειρασία; Peirasía). A city in the northeast of Thessaliotis (Thessalians, Thessalia), with ruins on the isolated 313 m high limestone mountain of Strongylovuno south of the modern Vlochós on the left bank of the Enipeus [2]. It was identified with the Homeric Astérion (Hom. Il. 2,735) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Ἀστέριον), and was allied with Athens in 431 BC (Thuc. 2,22,3 with schol.). Its contributions for the Delphic temple in 359/7 BC are attested in inscriptions (Syll.3 240 H, col. II 6ff.). Ancient remains: three concentric polygonal city walls with more …

Aenianes

(603 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Αἰνιᾶνες; Ainiânes). Small tribe, related to the  Myrmidones and the Achaeans of  Phthia, originally settled in the vicinity of the  Perrhaebi at the river Titaresius and in the surrounding plains, then driven south by the Thessalians advancing from the north; in historical times, they settled in the Aenis region in the upper valley of the Spercheus between the Dolopes, the Achaeans of Phthiotis, the  Malieis and the  Oetaei (Hom. Il. 2,749; Hdt. 7,198; further sources [1; 2]). Th…

Pelinna

(191 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελίννα; Pelínna). A city in Thessalian Hestiaeotis (Pind. Pyth. 10,4 and Str. 9,5,17: Πελινναῖον/ Pelinna ȋon; erroneously located in Phthiotis in Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., as in Plin. HN 4,32: Magnesia), the modern Paliogardiki east of Taxiarches (15 km east of Trikala); it features a well-preserved 3.2 km long wall round an area of 59 ha. P. gained independent significance only in the 4th cent. BC; from this time on, therefore, Pelinnaei appear more often in Delphic inscriptions as naopoioí (Temple economy) or hieromnemones (cf. Syll.3 p. 340f. and 444f.). P. wa…

Trachis

(132 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τραχίς/ Trachís). One of the oldest cities in the valley of the Spercheius, on the northern slopes of the Oete, at the end of the Asopus [1] gorge near the 'Trachinian Rocks' (Τραχίνιαι πέτραι/ Trachíniai pétrai, Hdt. 7,198). T. was the residence of Ceyx. In the Iliad T. is part of the territory of Peleus (Hom. Il. 2,682). In the 5th cent. BC, T. was the capital of the Malieis (Hdt. 7,199). In 426 BC, against the Oetaei who were advancing from the south, Sparta founded Heraclea [1] Trachinia only 6 stadia (about 1.2 km) away…

Heraclea

(2,510 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Errington, Robert Malcolm (Marburg/Lahn) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Peschlow-Bindokat, Anneliese (Berlin) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Et al.
(Ἡράκλεια; Hērákleia). [German version] [1] H. Trachinia This item can be found on the following maps: Aetolians, Aetolia | Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Ἡράκλεια ἡ Τραχινία; H. hē Trachinía). City on a rock to the left of and above the exit of the gorge of the  Asopus [1] into the Spercheus plain, separated from Oete ( Oetaei, Oete) on the southern and western flanks by deep streambeds, where the Trachinian rocks rise up with their numerous tomb caves. The lower city has vanished without trace. H. was founded in …

Dierum

(74 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Διερόν; Dierón). Fortification on Mt. Olympus, occupied by the troops of Q. Marcius Philippus during the invasion of Macedonia in 169 BC (Liv. 44,3). Located near the village Karia at c. 1,450 m altitude. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Bibliography A. Rhizakis, Une forteresse macédonienne dans l'Olympe, in: BCH 110, 1986, 331-346 G. Lucas, La Tripolis de Perrhébie et ses confins, in: I. Blum (ed.), Topographie antique et géographie historique en pays grec, 1992, 114 n. 243.

Melitaea

(273 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Μελιταία, Μελιτεία; Melitaía, Meliteía). Town of Achaea Phthiotis on the northern slopes of Mount Othrys, its location near Avaritsa (officially modern M.) is confirmed epigraphically. The migrating Thessalians moved the earlier town of Pyrrha from the valley of the Enipeus to its historical location as M. (Strab. 9,5,6). Brasidas stayed there in 426 BC (Thucyd. 4,78,1). One of the two hieromnḗmones of Achaea Phthiotis generally came from M. (Syll.3 314,5; 444,5). M. was a stronghold of the Greeks in the Lamian War (Diod. 18,15,1). From approx. 2…

Titarus

(102 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] (Τίταρος/ Títaros). A mountain chain (Eust. in Hom. Il. 1,192,20; Str. 7a,1,14 f.; 9,5,20: Titárion; modern Sapkas, up to 1890 m elevation) between Mount Olympus [1] in the east and Mount Cambunia in the west, forming a natural boundary between Macedonia and Thessaly. The T. was the northern border of Perrhaebic Tripolis [1] and gave its name to one of the main rivers of the small region, Titaresius (Hom. Il. 2,751-755; location uncertain); today the name is officially applied to the whole river (in Antiquity also Europus/Xerias) up to the Peneius. Kramolisch, Herwi…

Pagasae

(531 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Oracles | Education / Culture (Παγασαί/ Pasagaí). City in Thessaly on the northern coast of the bay named after it, modern Neai Pagasai. Tradition maintains that before P. was founded, the site was dedicated to Apollo Pagasaeus, and the wharf and was the place of departure and arrival for the Argonauts. P. was founded in c. 600 BC by the Thessali, who took possession of a 5,3 km wide coastal strip (Str. 9,5,15; Scyl. 64). Dependent on Pherae, P. was the most significant place on the 'Pagasite Gulf' (Παγασιτικὸς κόλπος/ Pagasitikòs …
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