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YAZIDIS ii. Initiation in Yazidism

(753 words)

Author(s): Kreyenbroek, Philip G.
Three different rites can mark the initiation of a Yazidi child as a member of the community.Three different rites can mark the initiation of a Yazidi child as a member of the community: (1) the cutting of a baby boy’s first locks ( bisk); (2) mor kirin, lit. “to stamp, seal,” and (3) for boys, circumcision (see also Wensinck ; in Kurdish sunnet, Pers. sonnat, Turk. sünnet). The relative importance attached to each of these ceremonies varies to some extent from region to region.(1) The bisk ceremony takes place in babyhood: according to the older literature it should be done on …
Date: 2022-02-17

Yaziden

(524 words)

Author(s): Kreyenbroek, Philip G.
[English Version] Yaziden, rel. Minderheitengruppe, die in den kurdischsprachigen Regionen des modernen Irak, der Türkei und Syriens sowie in Armenien und Georgien lebt. In ihren Heimatländern Druck ausgesetzt, wanderten im späten 20.Jh. viele Y. nach Europa, v.a. nach Deutschland, ab. Das Zentrum ihres rel. Lebens ist das Tal von Lāliš im Nordirak, wo sich ihr Gründer, Scheich ‘Adī ibn Musāfir (gest. ca.1160 n.Chr.), im frühen 12.Jh. niedergelassen hatte und sein Grabmal bis heute verehrt wird. O…

Yezidis

(570 words)

Author(s): Kreyenbroek, Philip G.
[German Version] a religious minority group living in the Kurdish-speaking areas of modern Iraq, Turkey and Syria, and in Armenia and Georgia. In the late 20th century many Yezidis were forced to migrate to Europe, notably to Germany. The center of the community’s religious life is the Valley of Lāliš in northern Iraq, where ʿAdī ibn Musāfir (died c. 1160 ce), the founder of the community, had settled in the early 12th century and where his tomb continues to be venerated. Although ʿAdī was an Islamic mystic (Mysticism: VI), the isolation of his Kurdish f…

ORAL LITERATURE IN IRAN

(5,395 words)

Author(s): Allison, Christine | Kreyenbroek, Philip G.
ORAL LITERATURE in Iran.INTRODUCTIONOral literature (sometimes called “verbal art”) comprises many genres, narrative and lyrical, poetry and prose, sung and spoken. In the Iranian languages a huge variety of material—heroic poetry, improvised lamentation, folktales and much more—has been recorded, though much remains uncollected. Despite the great literary traditions of the Iranian cultural area, literacy levels remained for the most part low in the pre-modern period and much literary and historic…
Date: 2023-01-16

NĪRANGDĪN CEREMONY

(565 words)

Author(s): Kreyenbroek, Philip G. | Kotwal, Firoze M.
a Zoroastrian ritual to consecrate gōmēz, or bull’s urine; the consecrated liquid is known as nīrang or nīrangdīn. NĪRANGDĪN CEREMONY, a Zoroastrian ritual to consecrate gōmēz (q.v.), or bull’s urine; the consecrated liquid is known as nīrang or nīrangdīn. The ceremony is briefly discussed or referred to in the Pahlavi Vīdēvdād (9.32, 19. 21-2), the Epistles of Manušcihr (I.7.15.18; II.3.12), and most comprehensively in a hitherto unpublished Pahlavi Text entitled Nērang Nērangdēn Yaštan az Nibištag Ērān (Kotwal, forthcoming). In essence, modern Parsi practice corresp…
Date: 2021-11-17

EXEGESIS

(14,558 words)

Author(s): Kreyenbroek, Philip G. | Bar-Asher, Meir M. | Keeler, Annabel | Lawson, B. Todd | Saleh, Walid A.
(Ar. tafsīr), commentary on or interpretation of sacred texts.A version of this article is available in printVolume IX, Fascicle 2, pp. 113-126 EXEGESIS (Ar. tafsīr), commentary on or interpretation of sacred texts.EXEGESIS i. In ZoroastrianismZoroastrian exegesis consists basically of the interpretation of the Avesta (q.v.). However, the closest equivalent Iranian concept, zand, generally includes Pahlavi texts which were believed to derive from commentaries upon Avestan scripture, but whose extant form contains no Avestan passages. Zoroastrian…
Date: 2021-06-17

FESTIVALS

(21,095 words)

Author(s): Boyce, Mary | Sundermann, Werner | Betteridge, Anne H. | EIr. | Kreyenbroek, Philip G. | Et al.
This article discusses religious or communal festivals and commemorations, ancient and modern, of diverse communities in Persia and Afghanistan. A version of this article is available in printVolume IX, Fascicle 5, 6, pp. 542-564 FESTIVALS. This article treats mainly religious or communal festivals and commemorations in Persia and Afghanistan. For specific festivals and secular celebrations, see under individual entries.FESTIVALS i. ZOROASTRIANZoroastrian festivals fall into two broad categories. There are the seven feasts of obligation, that is, No Rōz (Nowrūz) and the six g…
Date: 2021-07-20

IRAN

(211,903 words)

Author(s): Planhol, Xavier de | Yarshater, Ehsan | Hinnells, John R. | Frye, Richard N. | Brunner, Christopher J. | Et al.
The following sub-entries will provide an overview of the unifying factors which constitute Iran through time and across space, while also showing the complexity and heterogeneity of the components of Iranian culture.A version of this article is available in printVolume XIII, Fascicle 2, 3, 4, 5 pp. 204-480 IRAN, New Persian Irān (Mid. Pers. Ērān, from OIr. *Aryānām “of the Aryans” [see ARYANS]), name of the modern political state, also used, as noun or adjective (e.g., “Iranian plateau”), as a geographical term. The adjective is applied, ind…
Date: 2022-09-14