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Aḥmad b. ʿĪsā

(264 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
b. muḥ. b. ʿalī b. al-ʿarīḍ b. ḏj̲aʿfar al-ṣādiḳ (the great-grand-son of ʿAlī), called al-Muhād̲j̲ir "the Emigrant", saint and legendary ancestor of the Ḥaḍramī sayyids . He left Baṣra in 317/929 accompanied by Muḥammad b. Sulaymān (alleged ancestor of the Banū Ahdal [ q.v.]) and Sālim b. ʿAbdallāh (ancestor of Banū Ḳudaym), was prevented from visiting Mecca until next year by Abū Ṭāhir al-Ḳarmaṭī’s occupation and settled with his companions in Western Yaman (region of Surdud and Sahām). In 340/951 he left with his son ʿUbayd Allāh for Ḥ…

al-Hamdānī

(1,387 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. Aḥmad b. Yaʿḳūb b. Yūsuf b. Dāwūd b. Sulaymān Ḏh̲i ’l-Dumayna al-Bakīlī al-Arḥabī , often named Ibn D̲h̲i/Abi ’l-Dumayna or Ibn al-Ḥāʾik “The weaver’s ( i.e., the poet’s) son” after his ancestor Sulaymān, who was a poet (cf. Iklīl , x, 197), South-Arabian scholar, most famous as antiquarian, genealogist, geographer and poet. On account of his rich and varied literary production he was called “the tongue of South Arabia” ( lisān al-Yaman ). Al-Hamdānī, whose family originated from al-Marās̲h̲ī in the territory of Bakīl, was …

ʿAydarūs

(1,945 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(ʿEdrūs, often misunderstood as Idrīs; etymology obscure, cf. S̲h̲illī, Mas̲h̲raʿ , ii, 152) a family of learned sayyid s and ṣūfī s in South Arabia, India and Indonesia, belonging to the Saḳḳāf branch of the Bā ʿAlawī [ q.v.] and still playing an important rôle in Ḥaḍramawt. Wüstenfeld ( Çufiten , 29 ff.) quotes from al-Muḥibbī the details on more than thirty members of the family down to the 11/17th century. In the 19th century there ¶ were in Ḥaḍramawt five ʿAydarūs manṣab s, at Ḥazm, Bawr, Ṣalīla, T̲h̲ibī and Ramla. Among the numerous members of the c…

Ḥassān, Bā

(257 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
( Banū ), a branch ( ḅaṭn ) of the South Arabian tribe of Kinda [ q.v.], living in Ḥaḍramawt and descended from Ḥassān b. Muʿāwiya b. Ḥārit̲h̲ b. Muʿāwiya b. T̲h̲awr b. Mur(at)tiʿ b. Kinda. One member of it was ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿAlī Ibn/Bā Ḥassan al-Ḥaḍramī (750-818/1349-1415), whose chronicle ( Taʾrīk̲h̲ Ibn Ḥassān , also called T. al-Bahāʾ ) was used by ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad Abū/Bā Mak̲h̲rama (833-903/1430-98) and his son al-Ṭayyib (870-947/1465-1540) for the biographical dictionary Ḳilādat al-naḥr . A copy of that chronicle is now in the Bodleian Library. Other works by him…

(388 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(cf. bū ), genealogical term used in S. Arabia, especially among the sayyids and mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ of Ḥaḍramawt, to form individual and (secondarily) collective proper names, e.g., Bā ʿAbbād, Bā ʿAlawī, Bā Faḍl, Bā Faḳīh, Bā Ḥasan, Bā Ḥassān, Bā Hurmuz, Bā Wazīr (see special articles and the lists of Nallino (in Gabrieli, Nome proprio, 88) and van den Berg ( Ḥadhramout , 51-61)). Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (my ed., 254) gives details on this Ḥaḍramī nomenclature, which seemed so strange to the custom-house officers at Aden that they refused to register these names. While he and al-S̲h̲ard̲j̲ī ( Ṭabaḳāt…

ʿAlawī

(129 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(ʿAlluwī < Ahl ʿAlī, according to v. Maltzan, Reise , 356), tribe and district on the caravan route ʿAdan-Ḳaʿṭaba-Ṣanʿāʾ, the smallest among the "nine cantons" of the Western Aden Protectorate. It lies between ʿĀmirī (N) and Ḥaws̲h̲abī (S) territory and formerly belonged to the ʿĀmir (v. Maltzan, loc. cit.), but later it became semi-independent and signed a treaty with the British in 1895. Population: 1000-1500. The s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ lives at al-Sawda, which is the only place of some importance, with a landing ground for aircraft. (O. Löfgren) Bibliography Handbook of Arabia (Admiralty), i…

ʿAdan

(1,879 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O
( Aden ) (i) town, (ii) British crown colony, (iii) British protectorate in S.W. Arabia. (1) Town and seaport on the South coast of Arabia, in British possession since 1839, with a mixed population of ca 35,000. ʿAdan (cf. akkad. edinu "steppe"), more precisely ʿAdan Abyan (by way of distinction from ʿAdan Lāʿa, and al-ʿAdan in a verse of Ufnūn al-Tag̲h̲libī; cf. Yāḳūt, iii, 622 f., Kay, 232, AM, ii, 17, 284), or t̲h̲ag̲h̲r ʿAdan from its being strongly fortified, is the Athene of Pliny, ’Αθήνη of Philostorgius, ’Εύδαίμων ’Αραβία of the Periplus, ’Αραβία…

Banyar

(143 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, a confederation of South Arabian tribes, mainly Banū ʿĀmir, Banū Yūb (Ayyūb), Āl-ʿAzzān ¶ and Al ʿUmar, living north of Kawr ʿAwd̲h̲illa (cf. art. ʿAwd̲h̲alī) in al-Ḍāhir, Mark̲h̲a and Wādī Maʿfarī (also called W. Banyar). The Banyar once belonged to the Sultanate of al-Raṣṣāṣ in Miswara; their chief town is al-Bayḍāʾ [cf. art. bayḥān ]. Here is the residence of the common head ( ʿāḳil ) of all Banyar, while the Banū Yūb in the north are said to have an ʿāḳil of their own in al-Fars̲h̲a. The Banyar territory corresponds, roughly speaking, to that of the MḌḤY in inscriptions (cf. art. mad̲h̲ḥid̲…

Bayḥān

(796 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
( bēḥān ), wādī and territory in South Arabia, situated between Wādi Ḥarīb [ q.v.] in the west, and Wādī Mark̲h̲a (with the high plateau of the Nisiyyīn) in the east (cf. art. ʿawlaḳī ). This long valley, stretching from the Kawr ʿAwd̲h̲illa (cf. art. ʿawd̲h̲alī ) ca. 100 km. (65 miles) northward, until its dry “delta” disappears in the desert Ramlat Sabatayn, was once the centre of the ancient state of Ḳatabān [ q.v.]. Thanks to the American expedition in 1950 the main part of Bayḥān now is by far the best known of all South Arabian districts. In Ḳatabānic inscriptions BYḤN only means a trib…

Hurmuz, Bā

(128 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, a South Arabian mas̲h̲āyik̲h̲ -family to which belongs the Ḥaḍrami ṣūfī ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. ʿUmar Bā Hurmuz al-S̲h̲ibāmī al-Ak̲h̲ḍar (b. in S̲h̲ibām 840/1436, d. in Haynan 914/1508). He was the spiritual father of the famous ṣūfī scholar and poet ʿUmar b. ʿAbd Allāh b. Aḥmad Bā Mak̲h̲rama (d. 952/1545; see mak̲h̲rama , bā ) and is said to have made beautiful women sing and dance before him. Serjeant ( v. infra) has seen a work by a certain “Bā Hurmuz”, other names not given, entitled al-Durra al-muḍīʾa fi ’l-nisba al-Hurmuziyya . (O. Löfgren) Bibliography al-ʿAydarūs(ī), al-Nūr al-sāfir ʿa…

Baḥraḳ

(344 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
ḏj̲amāl al-dīn muḥammad b. ʿumar b. mubārak b. ʿabd allāh b. ʿalī al-ḥimyarī al-ḥaḍramī al-s̲h̲āfiʿī S. Arabian scholar and Ṣūfī. b. 869/1465 in Saywūn, d. 930/1524 in India. After studies in ʿAden and Zabīd he was ḳāḍī of S̲h̲iḥr for some time, then settled in ʿAden and found favour with its governor, the Amīr Mard̲j̲ān. After the death of his patron in 927/1521 he went to India ¶ and obtained the patronage of the sultan of Gud̲j̲arāt Muẓaffar S̲h̲āh, but he soon had to leave the court and died in Aḥmadābād, perhaps poisoned. In his great literary production he treats of theological as…

al-Ahdal

(586 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(plur. Mahādila, < *Mahdalī for am-Ahdalī(?); on etym. cf. al-Muḥibbī, i, 67, Wüstenfeld, 6), a family of sayyids living mostly in SW Arabia, descended from the sixth ʿAlid imām Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣāḍik. Their ancestor, ʿAlī b. ʿUmar b. Muḥ. al-Ahdal, called Ḳuṭb al-Yaman, and his son Abū Bakr (d. 700/1300) were famous ṣūfīs, living in the little town of Murāwaʿa ( TA) or Marāwiʿa (al-Muḥibbī) N ( ḳibliyya ) of Bayt al-Faḳīh Ibn ʿUd̲j̲ayl, where their graves are visited by pilgrims. To this clan belong the following ṣūfī scholars: 1. Ḥusayn b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Muḥ., Badr al-Dīn (b. in Ḳu…

Bā ʿAbbād

(77 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, a family of Ḥaḍramī mas̲h̲āʾik̲h̲ and scholars, associated with the shrine of the prophet Hūd. Among its members were (1) ʿAbd Allāh b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān Bā ʿAbbād al-Ḥaḍramī (d. 687/1288) and (2) Muḥammad b. ʿUmar b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (d. 721/1321) both of them buried in S̲h̲ibām (al-S̲h̲ard̲j̲ī, Ṭabaḳāṭ 70, 139). For two manāḳib- works on this family, see Serjeant, The Saiyids of Ḥaḍramawt , 6, 11 f. (O. Löfgren)

Bā ʿAlawī

(1,498 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(more precisely: Āl Bā ʿAlawī, cf. art. BĀ; according to al-S̲h̲illī [ Mas̲h̲raʿ. i, 31] ʿalawī is “a well-known bird”; nisba: al-ʿAlawī [also al-Bāʿalawī], not to be confounded with the usual nisba belonging to ʿAlī), a large and influential clan of S. Arabian sayyids and Ṣūfīs, for the most part living in Ḥaḍramawt, in or near the town of Tarīm [ q.v.], and buried in the Zanbal cernetery there. The noble descent of the Bā ʿAlawī sayyids is said to have been checked in the sixth century by the traditionist ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. Aḥmad b. Diadīd (d. 620/1223; Taʾrīk̲h̲ t̲h̲ag̲h̲r ʿAdan , ii, 157; Mas̲…

ʿAwlaḳī

(638 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(pl. ʿawāliḳ , vulg. Mawāleḳ; for the etymology, see Landberg, ii, 1684 f.) (a) tribal confederation and (b) territory in South Arabia, between the Indian Ocean and the desert (Ramlat Sabateyn). It is the eastermost district of the Western Aden Protectorate. The boundaries are, in the W the Faḍlī, ʿAwd̲h̲alī and Bayḥānī districts, in the E the Ḏh̲iēbī territory of ʿIrḳa, the Wāḥidī sultanate of Bal-Ḥāf and the indeterminate area of Ḏj̲erdän, ʿIrma (ʿUrma) with S̲h̲abwa, and Ā…

al-ʿĀra

(160 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, a place on the S. shore of Yaman, W. of ʿAdan, on Ṣubayḥī territory, between ʿUmayra (Khor Omeira) and Suḳyā (Sukayya). Ibn al-Mud̲j̲āwir (ca. 600/1200) makes it the starting point of several routes. Al-S̲h̲ard̲j̲ī (d. 893/1488) still calls this headquarter of the Banū Mus̲h̲ammir “a big village” (cf. Abū Mak̲h̲rama Taʾrīk̲h̲ T̲h̲ag̲h̲r ʿAdan , ii, 91 f., in the biography of Saʿīd b. Muḥ. Mus̲h̲ammir). Since then, with the diminishing caravan trade, there has been a steady decline. The place is still on the map of von Maltza…

G̲h̲umdān

(370 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
(epigr. g̲h̲ndn , CIH 429), the castle of Ṣanʿāʾ (Azāl) in the Yaman, famous for its antiquity, its size, and its splendour. Arabian geographers give detailed descriptions of it (v. infra), esp. Hamdānī (in Iklīl , viii), who attributes its building to the king Ils̲h̲araḥ Yaḥḍib (about 25 B.C.), probably correctly (cf. CIH 429). The castle was situated between the twin mountains Nuḳum and ʿAybān. It is said to have been destroyed by the Abyssinian conquerors in 525 A.D., but was rebuilt and served as the residence of Sayf b. Ḏh̲ū Yazan after the …

Baynūn

(237 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, ancient South Arabian castle and town, one of the famous Yamanite strongholds ( maḥāfid ) enumerated by Hamdānī ( Ṣifa , 203), who gives its description in the Iklīl , book VIII (ed. Müller, 41, 86 f.; Kirmilī, 66 f.; Faris, 54 f.). In legend Baynūn is said to have been built for Solomon by the d̲j̲inn , just as G̲h̲umdān (G̲H̲NDN) and Salḥīn (SLḤN), the castles of Ṣanʿāʾ and Mārib (see these articles). Baynūn is located by Hamdānī in the territory of ʿAns (b. Madḥid̲j̲), facing the ḥarra of Kawmān (six hours’ Journey NNW of mount Isbīl). Its ruins are at the…

ʿAwd̲h̲alī

(347 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
, (pl. ʿawād̲h̲il , coll. ʿAwd̲h̲illa; cf. al-ʿAwd (with d for d̲h̲ ) in al-Hamdānī, passim ), dynastic title of (a) tribe, (b) district (ca. 2,000 sq. km., 10,000 inhabitants) in the Western Aden Protectorate. It lies between the Lower Yāfiʿī (W), Faḍlī (S) and ʿAwlaḳī (E) territories. In the N, beyond the " status quo line" of 1934, are the districts Ḍāhir (Dahr) (< Ẓāhir, cf. al-Hamdānī) and Raṣṣāṣ (capitals: Bayḍāʾ viz . Meswara). Part of Ḍāhir (with ʿAryab as its centre) and Dat̲h̲īna (with Ḳulayta) have been incorporated into the ʿAwd̲h̲il…

ʿAt̲h̲r

(412 words)

Author(s): Löfgren, O.
or ʿat̲h̲thar (both pronunciations are well attested, the second one mostly in poetry, cf. LA, TA s.v.). (1) Mountain not far from Tabāla [ q.v.], known as a haunt of lions ( maʾsada ), like ʿItwad, S̲h̲arā etc. (cf. Hamdānī, 54, 127, tr. Forrer 222; Kaʿb b. Zuhayr, Bānat Suʿād , 46; ʿUrwa b. al-Ward, ii, 6). (2) District in NW Yaman on the Red Sea, between Ḏj̲āzān (Ḏj̲izan) and Ḥamīḍa (al-Hamdānī), or S̲h̲ard̲j̲a and Ḥaly (ʿUmāra). Main towns: ʿAt̲h̲r (see below), Bays̲h̲, Ḏj̲urayb, Ḥaly, Sirrayn. Wādīs : al-Amān, Bays̲h̲, Rīm, ʿIramram, Zanīf, al-ʿAmūd. Hav…
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