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Alexander of Constantinople

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
The date of Alexander’s accession to the bishopric of the predecessor town of Constantinople, Byzantium, is as unclear as the date of his death. According to Socrates Scholasticus, Alexander died in 340 CE, after a tenure of office of 23 years, at age 98, his predecessor being a certain Metrophanes (Socr. Hist. Eccl. 1.37.3; 2.6.2). Theodoret of Cyrrhus, however, seems to date the death of Alexander around the time of the foundation of Constantinople, that is, to 330 CE ( Hist. Eccl. 1.19.1). Both dates are likely to be wrong: modern scholarship agrees that the correct datin…
Date: 2019-08-09

Basilides

(3,445 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
Basilides was a Christian teacher in Alexandria during the time of Hadrian (Clem. Strom. 7.106.4). Irenaeus of Lyon claims that Basilides was inspired by Simon Magus and a certain Menander (Iren. Haer. 1.24.1). However, since Irenaeus credits Basilides with a doctrine that probably reflects the views of later Basilideans (see below), his doxographical construction is very doubtful. We know very little about the life of Basilides or his school: he had a son and pupil called Isidore ( Strom. 2.113.3).Eus. Hist. eccl. 4.7.5–8 cites a certain Agrippa Castor with additional infor…
Date: 2019-08-09

Dionysius of Corinth

(154 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] held office at the time of Roman bishop Soter (166?–175?). Eusebius of Caesarea discusses his correspondence ( Hist. eccl. IV 23) and mentions eight letters to the churches or bishops of Lacedaemonia, Athens (reference to Dionysius Areopagita as the first bishop there), Nicomedia, Gortyna (and other churches in Crete), Amastris (and other churches on the Black Sea), Knossos (reply from Bishop Pinytos), Rome (mentioning Peter and Paul as founders of the churches of Rome and Corinth and as martyrs; cf. Eus. Hist. eccl. II 25.8), as well as…

Lyon and Vienne, Martyrs of

(338 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] In his Historia ecclesiastica (V 1), Eusebius of Caesarea includes fragments of a letter written by the churches of Lyon and Vienne in Gaul to the Christians in Asia and Phrygia during the episcopate of Bishop Eleutherus of Rome, with a hagiographically stylized account of a contemporary persecution of Christians. Clearly the Christians were initially detained on the basis of accusations; in conformity with the edict of Emperor Trajan, those who confessed their faith were imprisoned …

Prosper of Aquitaine (Saint)

(294 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] (born in southern France; died after 455), cultured lay theologian and supporter of Augustine. Prosper’s oeuvre includes epigrams, poems, Augustinian florilegia, and a commentary on the Psalms based on Augustine of Hippo. In 428 he wrote to Augustine, challenging him to defend his doctrine of grace. He had been impressed by the criticism of certain monks in Marseille, who maintained that Augustine’s concept of predestination broke with tradition and ignored the value of moral and ascetic efforts…

Homoeans

(962 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] The Homoeans were a group of bishops in the Early Church who defined their faith in such a way that the relationship between Jesus Christ and his Father was to be described as ὅμοιος/ homoios (similar). Homoeanism refers to the first phase of the development of a confessional orthodoxy within the Roman Empire and the emergence of a multiconfessional “commonwealth” (Fowden) at its edges. I. Homoeanism arose in the conflicts of the 4th-century imperial church: from the time of the Synod of Serdica ¶ (342 or 343), there was a schism that was manifested in doctrinal …

Celestius

(270 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] (died after 431), a disciple of Pelagius, was born into an aristocratic family and became a public advocate. It was in Rome, c. 399, that he met the Syrian priest Rufinus, who denied the existence of original sin (Aug. Pecc. orig. III, 3). Pelagius and Celestius left ¶ Rome c. 410 in the face of the Gothic invasion (Goths). They fled to Carthage, where Celestius was condemned by synodal decree (c. 411/412), inter alia on account of his rejection of the doctrine of original sin. Though Celestius appealed to Rome, his sentence was confirmed …

Marius Mercator

(170 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] (died before 450), early Christian writer who engaged in the conflict over the doctrine of grace and the debate over Christology. Around 418 ce in Rome he published works against the Pelagians (Pelagius), who had been condemned by the pope and emperor. In 429, now a monk in a Thracian monastery with ties to Constantinople, he addressed an attack on Pelagius's disciple Celestius to Emperor Theodosius II ( Commonitorium super nomine Caelestii). His theological position was dependent on Augus-¶ tine of Hippo, Jerome, and the party of Cyril of Alexandria. He col…

Tyconius

(157 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] (late 4th cent.), exegete. A member of the church of the Donatists (Donatism), he was condemned by the church’s head, Parmenianus of Carthage, because he taught that God’s promise of a universal church was not abrogated by the presence of sinners in the church. He made a fruitful contribution to Latin exegesis (V, 1) through his commentary on Revelation (possibly surviving in a frgm. on Rev 6:6–13) and his Liber regularum (surviving incomplete; “the first Christian exegetical textbook” [Alexander]), used intensively by Augustine of Hippo ( Doctr. chr. III 30–37); it…

Optatus of Milevis

(282 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] Between 364 and 367, Optatus, an African bishop, wrote a treatise against the schismatic Donatists (Donatism), who had regained their strength as a result of the religious policies of Julian ¶ the Apostate. Initially his work comprised six books with an appended dossier of relevant documents, in response to a work by Parmenianus, the Donatist bishop of Carthage. During the pontificate of Siricius, Optatus added a seventh book. His argument was both historical and theological: in his polemical and apologetic rec…

Domnus of Antioch (II)

(126 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] (5th cent.), bishop of Antioch, spiritual student of Euthymius the Great, ¶ nephew and, after 442, successor of John of Antioch, was accused and deposed at the Council of Ephesus (449) led by Dioscorus of Alexandria (Flemming, 114–151). Domnus, sympathetic with the theology of Theodoret of Cyrrhus, Diodore of Tarsus and Theodore of Mopsuestia, turned …

Domnus of Antioch (I)

(99 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] was appointed bishop of Antioch after his predecessor Paul of Samosata was deposed by two Antiochene synods (264 and 268 ce). His episcopate was probably brief (268–271?). Since Paul was unwilling to step down, Domnus was able to occupy the church building only after Emperor Aurelian, who had been asked for a ruling, decreed that those who were in epistolary contact with the bishops in Rome and Italy were legally entitled to it (Eus. Hist. eccl. VII 30.18–19). Winrich Löhr Bibliography E. Venables, DCB I, 1877, 878 E. Prinzivalli, EEC I, 1992, 246f.

Philoponus, John

(214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] (died after 575 in Alexandria), important Christian philosopher and exegete in Alexandria. A student of the Neoplatonic philosopher Ammonius Hermeiou, inter aliahe wrote commentaries on the writings of Aristotle and Porphyry of Gaza, and worked in the fields of grammar, mathematics, astronomy, and medicine. In his commentary on Aristotle’s Physica he developed the so-called theory of impetus, according to which, for example, someone throwing a stone transmits power to it directly. Theologically important are his polemics against…

Orange, Synod of

(297 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich
[German Version] On Jul 3, 529, on the occasion of a church dedication, Caesarius of Arles convoked a synod in the southern French city of Orange to consider the controversial doctrine of grace (Grace, Doctrine of) espoused by Augustine of Hippo. Not long before, a synod in Valence, in the diocese of Vienne, then a rival see to Arles, had dealt with the same topic. The Synod of Orange approved a document, presumably edited by Caesarius, comprising 25 canons framed by an introduction and a credal s…

Satorninus

(193 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich Alfried (Cambridge)
[German version] (Σατορνεῖλος/ Satorneîlos, Σατορνῖνος/ Satornînos, Latin Saturninus). Christian teacher at the time of the emperor Hadrian (first half of the 2nd century AD) in Antioch [1] (Euseb. Hist. eccl. 4,7,3; cf. also Hippolytus, Refutatio omnium haeresium 7,28), who was considered a heretic (Heresy; Gnosis). According to Eirenaeus [2] of Lyon, Adversus haereses 1,24,1-2, his doctrine presented as the supreme principle the unknown Father, creator of the angels. According to S., Man, as the 'ima…

Francis of Assisi

(718 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich A.
Francis of Assisi (1181/82–1226), baptized Giovanni Bernardone, was the founder of the Franciscan Order. The son of a wealthy cloth merchant, Peter Bernardone, and his French wife, Pica, Francis experienced the kind of wild youth appropriate for a later saint. After participating in a war between his hometown Assisi and Perugia in 1202 and being held captive for a year, and after a lengthy illness, he underwent a conversion (§1) during the years 1204–7, the details of which are difficult to unde…

Sethians

(4,600 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich A.
Modern scholarship has as yet reached no agreement whether or not there existed in Late Antiquity a distinct religious group or sect that took its name from Adam's son Seth (Gen 4:25; 5:3). Whereas some scholars express scepticism (e.g. Wisse), others feel confident in demarcating a body of Sethian literature and in reconstructing the doctrine of a distinct group of Sethians (e.g. Schenke, Turner). They claim that the Sethians were as much a distinct group as the Valentinians [→ Valentinus and V…

Perates

(987 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich A.
The Perates are a gnostic group whose name is first mentioned by → Clement of Alexandria ( Stromateis, VII, 108, 2). Hippolytus identifies two otherwise unknown persons as their founders ( Refutatio, V, 13, 9): Akembes (IV, 2, 1; Kelbes: V, 13, 9; Ademes: X, 10, 1), who is called ho Karystios (Karystos is a town in Euboia), and Euphrates, who is called ho Peratikos (also mentioned by Origen, Contra Celsum VI, 28 as a teacher of the → Ophites). Clement opines that the name Perates is derived from their place of origin. Different suggestions have been discussed: Eub…

Carpocratians

(2,168 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich A.
The Carpocratians belong to the broad spectrum of Christian schools in the 2nd century that teach Christianity as a philosophy. Their founder, the Alexandrian Christian Carpocrates, was married to a lady called Alexandria who came from the island of Kephallenia in the Adriatic sea. They had a son called Epiphanes who received from his father an “encyclopaedic education”, wrote some treatises and died at the age of seventeen. Clement reports that the deceased Epiphanes was given divine honours: a temple and a mouseion were erected in Same on the island of Kephallenia and every…

Basilides

(3,880 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich A.
Basilides,, 2nd century Basilides was a free Christian teacher who presumably lived and taught in Alexandria during the reign of the emperor Hadrian (cf. Jerome, Chronicle, 201, 1f Helm). He had a son who became his disciple, Isidore. The ancient evidence about Basilides and his school can be divided into three groups: 1. the fragments and testimonies preserved by → Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Eusebius of Caesarea and Hegemonius ( Acta Archelai); 2. the report of Irenaeus of Lyon, which influenced the heresiology of Pseudo-Tertullian, Epiphanius of Salamis and F…
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