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Composition contract

(1,091 words)

Author(s): Lück, Heiner
1. DefinitionA composition contract was a legal instrument (in criminal law) for dispute resolution. In terms of chronology, it was in use from the time people first lived under law (and thus settled wrongs) until the first two decades of the 17th century. When a crime (such as murder) had been committed, the parties of the perpetrator and victim (family, relatives, friends), who now stood in a relationship that demanded vengeance and satisfaction, reached a contractual agreement, with or without the involvement of a judicial authority ( Gerichtsherr), to pay a wergild, that is, …
Date: 2019-10-14

Arms

(4,340 words)

Author(s): Walther, Gerrit | Lück, Heiner | Biller, Josef H.
1. Definition, origin, and forms In the Western society of estates (see Estates, society of) of the Middle Ages and early modern period, (coats of) arms (German Wappen from Middle High German  wâpen, French armoiries [1]) were important symbols of rank and status, the descent and relationships of an individual, a family (Family coat of arms), or a corporate body. They came into being around 1100 in the regions of (Central) Europe where feudal society had its deepest roots: (northern) France, Burgundy, England, Scotland, and th…
Date: 2019-10-14