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(255 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Οὐίττιγις; Ouíttigis). First non-Amal Ostrogoth king in Italy AD 536-540, successor to Theodahat (Theodahatus), nephew of Ulitheus, uncle of Uraias. Spatharius ('sword-bearer') to Athalaric (Cassiod. MGH AA 12,476). After Theodahat's failure in the face of the Byzantine invasion, V. was proclaimed king by the Gothic army in Reate at the end of 536 (Procop. BG 1,11,5). He had Theodahat killed (Procop. BG 1,11,6) and subsequently marched to Ravenna, where he forced Matasuntha, granddaughter of Theode…

Segericus (Segeric)

(42 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king in 415 AD, brother of Sarus, successor to Ataulfus but assassinated after a few days, probably because of his pro-Roman attitude (Oros. 7,43,9). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 987 2 P. Heather, Goths and Romans, 1991, 197 f.


(72 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (also Wacho, Waccho, Vaces). King of the  Langobardi; he killed his uncle Tato, expelled his cousin Ildichis and sought by marriage policies to make alliances with the Thuringi, the Gepidae and the Heruli. Allied with Byzantium, he refused in 539 AD to support  Witigis. V. died shortly afterwards. (Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum 1,21;  Procop. Goth. 2,22,11-12). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography J. Jarnut, Geschichte der Langobarden, 1982, 20-22  PLRE 3, 1350.


(88 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in Spain, AD 448-455, Catholic [2. 21-23], married a daughter of the Visigothic king Theodericus I, plundered northern Spain 448/9 (Chron. min. 2,25) and concluded temporary treaties with the Romans in 453 and 454 (Chron. min. 2,27). R.' expansionistic policies at the beginning of the reign of Theodericus II (453-466) brought him into conflict with the Visigoths. During this conflict, R. was killed in 455 (Chron. min. 2,29). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 935 2 R. Collins, Early Medieval Spain, 1983.


(59 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Goth in the service of Rome, a relative of Aspar (Ardabur [1]; ILS 1299), possibly an ancestor of Basilicus [2. 426f.]. P. put down a rebellion in Palestine in 418 AD. In 419 he was a consul, then until c. 438/440 a magister militum. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 892f. 2 W. Brandes, Familienbande?, in: Klio 75, 1993, 407-437.


(117 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Frank in Roman service. As comes domesticorum sent by Gratianus [2] from Gallia to Thracia in AD 377/378 (Amm. Marc. 31,7,4); he became magister militum per orientem in 383, consul in 384. In 388 he took part in the campaign against Maximus [II 7]. R. introduced Eugenius [1] to his nephew Arbogastes (Zos. 4,54,1) who installed Eugenius as emperor on 22 August 392. R. returned to the East. He died in 393 prior to the campaign against Eugenius. R. was in contact with Libanius (cf. Lib. Ep. 972) and Symmachus (Symmachus Ep. 3,54-69). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE…


(123 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Brother of Odoacer. After the fall of Attila's kingdom, O. led the Sciri (Iord. Get. 277f.), together with his father. After their defeat, he served the Romans from AD 469 on. Challenged by the magister militum praesentalis Armatus, he killed him in 477, on the orders of Zeno (Malchus, FHG 4, p. 117, fr. 8 = fr. 9,4 Blockley) [2. 411-413]. O. served as m agister militum in Illyria from 477 to 479, then changed to his brother's side and in 488 defeated the Rugians (Eugippius, Vita Severini 44,4). He was murdered in 493 after Odoacer's defeat (Io…


(87 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Gothic comes AD 505 [1. 886f.]. In a dispute with the Gepidae in 505, he occupied Sirmium and helped the local overlord Mundo [2. 397ff.] against troops of the Eastern Empire, defeating them (Ennod. panegyricus dictus clementissimo regi Theoderico 12; Iord. Get. 300f.) [3. 174f.]. Possibly identical to the Petia murdered in 514 by Theoderic (Theodericus (Theoderic) [3]) (Auctarium Havniense, MGH AA 9,331) [1. 861; 2. 406f.]. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2 2 P. Amory, People and Identity in Ostrogothic Italy, 1997, 489-554 3 J. Moorhead, Theo…


(46 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Suebian. With Sido, he deposed his uncle, Vannius , in AD 51, divided the kingdom of the Suebi with Sido and thereafter reigned in close dependency on the Roman Empire, but apparently detested by his subjects (Tac. Ann. 12,30). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(521 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Rex in Italy AD 476-493. Son of Edeco, brother of Onulf, probably born in 433 (cf. Iohannes Antiochenus, FHG 4, p. 617, fr. 209,1). O.'s family came from the circles around the court of Attila, and so it is hard to determine to which tribe they belonged [5. 124]. The number and identity of O.'s siblings is also a matter of debate ([4]; contra [2]). After the disintegration of Attila's empire (454) O.'s father and Onulf led the Sciri until 469. O.'s whereabouts during this period are uncertain; his identification with O., the leader of the Saxons, ([4. 347f.], c. 463-469 in Ga…


(116 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king (Visigoths), from AD 415 the successor of Segericus in Spain. V. may have planned to cross to Africa (see also [2. 89]) in order to escape pressure from Constantius [6] on the Goths, but in 416 he concluded a treaty with Ravenna in which they probably agreed to a Goth initiative against the other Germanic peoples in Spain and the later settlement of the Goths in Gaul. (MGH AA 11,19; Oros. 7,43,10-15; Olympiodoros fr.30 Blockley; [2. 88-93]). V. died in 418 before the…


(140 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Flavius N., of Germanic origin. In AD 358 leader of a cavalry unit in Raetia (Amm. Marc. 17,6,3), in 361 promoted by Iulianus [11] to magister equitum (Amm. Marc. 21,8,1). In 361/62 N. was part of the court in Calchedon against the supporters of Constantius [2] II (Amm. Marc. 22,3,1), and he was consul in 362 and the commander of the Persian campaign of 363 (Amm. Marc. 24,1,2). After the death of Iulianus he sided with a party of ‘Gauls’ in the conflict surrounding the succession (Amm. Marc. 25,5,2). After…


(43 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Visigoth king 586-601 AD, son of Leowigild; in 587 he brought about the conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism (Chron. min. 2,218). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography D. Claude, Adel, Kirche und Königtum im Westgotenreich, 1971, 77-91  PLRE 3, 1079 f.


(153 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] [1] Murderer of Valentinianus [4] III, 5th cent. AD Protector of Valentinianus [4] III, formerly in the service of Aetius [5]. He and Optila murdered Valentinianus in AD 455, in order to avenge the death of Aetius, probably on the instructions of Maximus [8], to whom he delivered the diadem (Iohannes Antiochenus fr. 201,4 f., FHG 4, 615; Chron. min. 1,303, where he is Aetius [2]' son-in-law; 2,86). PLRE 2,1117 f. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) [German version] [2] Magister militum, 5th cent. AD Magister militum in the Eastern empire, executed after a conspiracy aga…


(95 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] King of the Suebi in AD 465-469. R. was probably at the court of the Visigoths in 461. After the death of Frumarius [1. 486 f.] he was elevated to king of all the Suebi in 465 (Chron. min. 2,33). He was son-at-arms of king Theoderic II of the Visigoths (Chron. min. 2,33). He is not identical [2. 667 f.] to the pretender Rechimundus (AD 459-461) [1. 936]. R. was still alive when Hydatius [2] ended his Chronicle (AD 468). Suebi Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 938 2 D. Claude, Prosopographie des spanischen Suebenreichs, in: Francia 6, 1978, 647-676.


(44 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Goth, commander of the troops in the Gothic part of Gaul which Vitigis abandoned in AD 536/7 (Procop. Goth. 1,13,15-16; 29). From there, M. was called to the siege of Rome (Procop. Goth. 1,19,12; PLRE 3B, 823f.) Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)

Vetericus (Viderich)

(77 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] (Viderich). Amalus (Amali), who came with his father Berimund from the territory of the Hunni to Gaul in AD 427 (Iord. Get. 251). Probably identical to Vitericus (Chron. min. 1,477 Mommsen), who fought with the Romans against the Visigoth Theoderic I (Theodericus [1]) in 439 ([2. 259 f.]; otherwise in e.g. [1]). Father of Theoderic the Great's (Theodericus [3]) designated successor Eutharicus Cilliga. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 PLRE 2, 1157, s. v. Vetericus 2 H. Wolfram, Die Goten, 42001.


(92 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Ostrogoth king c. 451-473 AD, son of Vandalarius, brother of Valamer and Theodemir, uncle of Theoderic (Theodericus [3]) the Great. He took part in Attila's campaigns (Iord. Get. 199), and ruled beside his brothers in a region in Pannonia after Attila's death in 454 (Iord. Get. 268), from 461 as a Roman ally. V. was sent to Italy in 473 by Theodemir and died there during the campaign (Iord. Get. 283 f.). His successor was his son of the same name (Iord. Get. 284). PLRE 2,1164. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)


(88 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] According to Zosimos (4,25,2-4) M. was a Goth of royal descent (relative of Athanaric [2. 189f.]. He went over to the Romans, received a military command and shortly after (380 AD?) in Thrace achieved a success (probably exaggerated by Zosimus [2. 77f.]) against pillaging Goths. Gregorius [3] of Nazianzus addressed two letters (epist. 136 and 137) to M. as magister militum. M. was a Christian but not an Arian [1. 388]. Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography 1 F. Paschoud, Zosime, vol. 2,2, 1979, 387f. 2 P. Heather, Goths and Romans, 1991.


(60 words)

Author(s): Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl)
[German version] Chief of the Greuthungi, who crossed the Danube in AD 386, but were defeated (Zos. 4,35,1; 38f.; Claud. Carm. 8,623-633). O. was killed and the surviving Greuthungi were settled in Phrygia by Theodosius I (cf. Chron. min. 1,244). Lütkenhaus, Werner (Marl) Bibliography PLRE 1, 639  P. Heather, Goths and Huns, in: CAH 13, 1998, 502; 512 n. 42.
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