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al-Samarḳandī, S̲h̲ams al-Dīn

(771 words)

Author(s): Miller, L.B.
, Muḥammad b. As̲h̲raf al-Ḥusaynī, an expert in both the ancient and Islamic sciences who composed important works on theology, logic, geometry and astronomy. He is most celebrated for his epistle on the art of disputation, al-Risāla al-Samarḳandiyya fī ādāb al-baḥt̲h̲ (in Mad̲j̲mūʿa mus̲h̲tamila ʿalā al-ātī bayānuhū , ed. Maḥmūd al-Imām al-Manṣūrī, Cairo 1353, 125-32), which was the most famous treatment of disputation ¶ and which became the subject of numerous commentaries (see Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Kas̲h̲f al-ẓunūn , Istanbul 1951-3, i, 39). Unli…

AMĀNALLĀH

(1,403 words)

Author(s): L. B. Poullada
(1892-1961), ruler of Afghanistan (1919-29), first with the title of amir and from 1926 on with that of shah. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 9, pp. 921-923 AMĀNALLĀH (1892-1961), ruler of Afghanistan (1919-29), first with the title of amir and from 1926 on with that of shah. He was the third son of Amir Ḥabīballāh, who was assassinated on 20 February 1919 when Amānallāh was serving as governor of Kabul with control over the army and the royal treasury, an advantage that aided him to succeed in…
Date: 2013-01-29

al-Samarḳandī

(726 words)

Author(s): Miller, L.B.
, S̲h̲ams al-dīn Muḥammad b. As̲h̲raf al-Ḥusaynī, spécialiste en sciences de l’antiquité et en sciences islamiques, auteur d’ouvrages importants en théologie, logique, géométrie et astronomie. Il est réputé pour son épître sur l’art de la controverse, al-Risāla al-samarḳandiyya fī ādāb al-baḥt̲h̲ (dans Mad̲j̲mūʿa mus̲h̲tamila ʿalā l-ātī bayānuhu, éd. Maḥmūd al-Imām al-Manṣūrī, Caire 1353, 125-32), le plus célèbre traité de la controverse, qui fit l’objet de nombreux commentaires (voir Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Ḵh̲alīfa, Kas̲h̲f, Istanbul 1951-3, I, 39). Contrairement aux auteur…

Albert Gallatin's Vision of Democratic Stability: An Interpretive Profile

(67 words)

Author(s): Kuppenheimer, L. B.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 7: U.S. R…

Albert Gallatin's Vision of Democratic Stability: An Interpretive Profile

(62 words)

Author(s): Kuppenheimer, L. B.
Bibliographic entry in Chapter 4: United…

Frau

(2,477 words)

Author(s): RU.PA. | L.B.
[English version] I.* Minoische und mykenische Kultur Kenntnisse über F. der brz. minoischen (=min.) und myk. Kulturen stammen im wesentlichen von bildlichen Darstellungen (Plastik, Wandmalerei), aus Verwaltungstexten auf Linear B-Tontafeln und aus Grabkontexten. Die min. Palastkultur Kretas ab etwa 2000 v. Chr. (vgl. Minoische Kultur und Archäologie) unterscheidet sich von der helladischen Kultur (ca. 2100-1600) des griech. Festlandes, doch finden sich in den Schachtgräbern von Mykenai und in der Wandmalerei von Thera, das zu…

Taʿrīf

(843 words)

Author(s): Miller, L. B. | Carter, M. G.
(a.), littéralement «faire connaître» d’où «définition». 1. Terme de logique. Ibn Sīnā semble avoir été le premier philosophe à employer le mot taʿrīf comme terme général pour «définition» qui comprend à la fois la «définition aristotélicienne» ( ḥadd [ q.v.]) et la «définition descriptive», rasm, du grec ὑπογραφή. Ibn Sīnā définit taʿrīf généralement comme «un acte intentionnel, par la parole ou le geste, qui fait comprendre à la personne qui le perçoit la chose définie» huwa an yaḳṣida fiʿl al-s̲h̲ayʾ id̲h̲ā s̲h̲aʿara bihi s̲h̲āʿir taṣawwara s̲h̲ayʾan mā huwwa l-muʿarraf wa-d̲…

Taʿrīf

(813 words)

Author(s): Miller, L.B. | Carter, M.G.
(a.), lit. “making known”, hence “definition”. 1. As a term in logic. Ibn Sīnā appears to have been the first philosopher to use the word taʿrīf as a general term for definition that encompasses both “Aristotelian definition” ( ḥadd [ q.v.]) and descriptive definition, rasm , Gr. ύπογραφή Ibn Sīnā defines taʿrīf more generally as “an intentional act, by means of speech or sign, that causes the person perceiving it to conceive of the thing defined” huwa an yaḳṣida fiʿl al-s̲h̲ayʾ id̲h̲ā s̲h̲aʿara bihi s̲h̲āʿir taṣawwara s̲h̲ayʾan-mā huwa ’l-muʿarraf wa-d̲h̲ālika ’l-fiʿl …

Woman

(7,947 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Feucht, Erika (Heidelberg) | Brosius, Maria (Oxford) | Macuch, Maria (Berlin) | RU.PA. | Et al.
I. Ancient Orient, Egypt and Iran [German version] A. Introduction Knowledge of the status of women is largely based on texts of a legal nature (legal documents, law books, royal decrees). Accordingly, research to date emphasizes primarily the legal aspects of the position of women in family and society. Non-legal texts from a variety of genres contain information on the activities of women from the families of the elite, particularly those of the royal clan. Thus, the Hittite royal wife Puduḫepa (13th ce…