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Fröbel, Friedrich

(580 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] (Apr 21, 1782, Oberweißbach – Jun 21, 1852, Marienthal). educationist of Romanticism, considered the founder of the kindergarten and coiner of the word Kindergarten. After a rather unhappy childhood, schooling, and a two-year apprenticeship with a forester, Fröbel began studying the natural sciences in Jena in 1799. In 1802, he broke off his studies to take up work as a forester's assistant until 1805. Then he decided to study architecture in Frankfurt am Main, but he also abandoned this study and becam…

Rochow, Friedrich Eberhard von

(191 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] (Oct 11, 1734, Berlin – May 16, 1805, Gut Reckhan). From 1747 to 1749, Rochow attended a college for sons of the nobility, the Ritterakademie in Brandenburg; from 1750 to 1758 he pursued a military career, and in 1760 took over the family estates of Reckhan, Gettin, and Krahne in Brandenburg. There, among other activities, he was responsible for schools, and his attention was particularly drawn to neglect in the upbringing of children. This prompted him to develop a program for an…

Basedow, Johannes Bernhard

(338 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] (Sep 11, 1724, Hamburg – Jul 25, 1790, Magdeburg) studied theology in Leipzig and Kiel after an unhappy childhood in humble conditions. From 1749 a private tutor, he was professor of morals and eloquence from 1753 to 1761, later theology professor at the Danish Academy for the Sons of Noblemen in Sorø. In 1761, he was relegated to the grammar …

School Bible

(801 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] A school Bible is a Bible (V, 2) edition prepared for use in schools, replacing the complete Bible in the classroom. Any school Bible must include a variety of biblical content, remembering that it is designed for students studying in school. There are a large number of school Bibles under such titles (in German) as Bible Selections, Student Bible, Bible Stories, or Readings from the Bible; the variety is such that a selective definition is difficult. The various school Bibles run the gamut from maximum fidelity to the complete Bible to free re…

Salzmann, Christian Gotthilf

(187 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] (Jun 1, 1744, Sömmerda, Thuringia – Oct 31, 1811, Schnepfenthal), studied Protestant theology in Jena from 1761 to 1764, after which he assisted his father in his pastoral work and continued his own academic work, with a theological disputation at Erfurt in 1767 (cf. Lachmann). From 1768 to 1772 he served as a pastor in Rohrborn and from 1772 to 1780 in Erfurt; he was a successful pulpit orator, pastor, and school overseer. In 1780 he turned to teaching at J.B. Basedow’s Philanthr…

Uhsadel, Walter Franz

(203 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] (Jun 28, 1900, Danzig [Gdansk] – Jun 9, 1985, Hamburg) studied theology and education at Hamburg, Marburg, and Berlin from 1920 to 1924. He passed his first (1924) and second (1926) theological examinations in Hamburg, where he served as a pastor until 1944, then in Cuxhaven until 1950. After 1934 he was active in the Evangelische Michaelsbruderschaft, with which he remained connected throughout his lifetime. In 1938 he received his doctorate from Hamburg under Wilhelm Flitner wit…

Salzmann

(132 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[English Version] Salzmann, Christian Gotthilf (1.6.1744 Sömmerda, Thüringen – 31.10.1811 Schnepfenthal). 1761–1764 Studium der ev. Theol. in Jena. Anschließend Mithilfe im väterlichen Pfarrdienst und wiss. Arbeit mit theol. Disputation (1767) in Erfurt (vgl. Lachmann). 1768–1772 Pfarrstelle in Rohrborn, 1772–1780 in Erfurt; er war erfolgreicher Kanzelredner, Seelsorger und Schulaufseher. 1780 Wendejahr zum Dienst an J.B. Basedows Dessauer Philanthropin; erste (religions-)päd. Schriften. 1784 Gründu…

Rochow

(140 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[English Version] Rochow, Friedrich Eberhard v. (11.10.1734 Berlin – 16.5.1805 Gut Reckhan). 1747–1749 Besuch der Ritterakademie in Brandenburg; 1750–1758 militärische Laufbahn; 1760 Übernahme der Brandenburger Familiengüter Reckhan, Gettin und Krahne. Dort übte v.R. u.a. die Schulaufsicht aus, was ihn bes. auf die vernachlässigte Erziehung der Kinder aufmerksam werden ließ. Das veranlaßte ihn, ein Programm für ein aufgeklärtes Elementarschulwesen zu entwickeln, das er v.a. in seiner Modellschule in …

Schulbibel

(707 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[English Version] . Die Sch. ist eine für Schulzwecke bearbeitete Bibelausg. (Bibel: V.,2.), die im Unterricht anstatt der Vollbibel eingesetzt wird. Konstitutiv für jede Sch. ist, daß sie eine Auswahl an bibl. Inhalten darstellt und ihre Adressaten Schüler und Schülerinnen am Lernort Schule sind. In diesem Rahmen begegnet unter Namen wie »Auswahlbibel«, »Schülerbibel«, »Bibl. Geschichte(n)« oder »Bibl. Lesebuch« eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Sch.-Arten, die eine trennscharfe Definition schwer m…

Uhsadel

(179 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[English Version] Uhsadel, Walter Franz (28.6.1900 Danzig – 9.6.1985 Hamburg). Von 1920 bis 1924 Studium der Theol. und Päd. in Hamburg, Marburg und Berlin. Erstes und Zweites theol. Examen 1924/1926 in Hamburg; dort bis 1944 Pastor, dann bis 1950 in Cuxhaven. Ab 1934 engagierte sich U. in der Ev. Michaelsbruderschaft, der er lebenslang verbunden blieb. 1938 promovierte er in Hamburg bei W. Flitner über ein reformpäd. Thema und wurde 1950 Dozent am Päd. Institut der Universität Hamburg, ehe er von …

Volksbibel

(290 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[English Version] als eine im Sinne eines Volksbuchs weit verbreitete Bibelausg. ist eine Auswahl aus der Bibel, die allg. zugängliche, verständliche und selbständige Bibellektüre ermöglichen will. Heute ist der Name V. kaum mehr gebräuchlich, auch wenn ihm angesichts der berühmten »Vorauer V.« (1467) uneingeschränkte hist. Priorität gebührt. Wachsende Relevanz gewann das Anliegen der V. ab dem 19.Jh., als die Bibel mehr und mehr aufhörte, ein Volksbuch zu sein. Jetzt wurden die Fragen nach Auswah…

Popular Bible Editions

(295 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] A popular Bible edition is a widely distributed book containing selections from the Bible, intended to make independent, intelligent Bible reading generally accessible. One of the earliest examples is the Vorauer Volksbibel (1467), although the German word Volksbibel (“people’s Bible,” “popular Bible”) is no longer in common use. The need for such popular editions became increasingly clear during the 19th century, as the Bible gradually ceased to be popular literature. In that context, the question of content, form, …

Kabisch, Richard

(324 words)

Author(s): Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] (May 21, 1868, Kemnitz near Greifswald – Oct 30, 1914, Flanders). The son of a Pomeranian pastor, he studied German language and literature as well as history from 1885, and then Protestant theology in Greifswald and Bonn. In 1889, he completed his doctorate and became curate in Saarbrücken. In 1891, he was appointed director of a Latin school in Altenkirchen, in 1892 he became lecturer in the seminary, and from 1903 to 1910 he was the director of the seminaries in Uetersen, Holstein, and later Prenzlau. In 1910, he became royal senior executive officer ( Regierungsrat) in …

Example

(1,226 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich | Lachmann, Rainer
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics – III. Education I. Dogmatics “Example” is not a term commonly used in dogmatics. It is probably most often used negatively in the context of Christology in order to preclude a merely ethical interpretation of the work of Christ (exemplary Christology): the “ salvific work” of Jesus Christ is at variance with every attempt to see him as a mere “ethical example” (Härle, 315). This remains true even though we find that…

Vorbild

(1,048 words)

Author(s): Schweitzer, Friedrich | Lachmann, Rainer
[English Version] I. Dogmatisch V. ist kein geläufiger Terminus der Dogmatik. Wohl am häufigsten wird er in einem negativen Sinne im Kontext der Christologie gebraucht, um eine bloß ethische Auslegung des Christusglaubens (Vorbildchristologie) auszuschließen: Das » Heilswerk« Jesu Christi widerspricht jedem Versuch, ihn nur als »ethisches V.« zu verstehen (Härle 315). Der Befund, daß der Begriff V. im NT vielfach positiv gebraucht wird (v. Lips), ändert daran nichts. Auf positive Bedeutungen von V. verweisen auch verwandte, von e…

Religionsunterricht

(4,795 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Lachmann, Rainer | Link, Christoph | Schröder, Bernd | Heine, Peter
[English Version] I. Geschichtlich Der Religionsunterricht (RU) an Schulen, und nur dieser ist entsprechend heutigem Sprachgebrauch im Blick (s. zu RU im weiteren Sinne Christenlehre, Konfirmandenunterricht), ist Resultat des allg. Differenzierungsprozesses, der zu Bemühungen um rel. Lernen auch außerhalb von Familie und Gottesdienst führte. Entsprechend der Entstehung von Schule im eur. Kulturkreis im kirchl. Bereich (Schule und Kirche, Schule, kirchliche, Klosterschulen) bestand lange Zeit der sc…

Religious Education

(5,807 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Lachmann, Rainer | Link, Christoph | Schröder, Bernd | Heine, Peter
[German Version] I. History Religious education (RE) in schools, in modern usage of the term (for RE in a broader sense see Christian doctrine classes, Confirmation classes), is the result of the general differentiation process that led to the promotion of religious learning beyond the contexts of family and worship. The schools of the European cultural sphere arose largely in the area of the church (School and church, Church schools, Monastery schools); for a long time, schooling was essentially based on religious texts. Since each country established its own particular forms…

Family

(5,614 words)

Author(s): Becker, Dieter | Gerstenberger, Erhard S. | Osiek, Carolyn | Klein, Birgit | Heun, Werner | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Medieval and Modern Judaism – V. The Law – VI. History and Sociology – VII. Social Ethics – VIII.  Socialization Theory – IX. Education – X. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The term family describes a varied network of relationships between parents, children and other persons in a social system. In ethnically shaped small-scale societies, family groups are bearers of religious rituals (Rite and Ritual) and centers of religious community. Fa…