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Cynortium

(48 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Κυνόρτιον; Kynórtion). The mountain above the theatre of the Asclepius sanctuary of Epidaurus with the sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas (Paus. 2,27,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography V. Lambrinudakis, Excavation and Restoration of the Sanctuary of Apollo Maleatas and Asclepius at Epidauros, in: Peloponnesiaka Suppl. 13, 1987f., 298ff.

Arar

(88 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] River in  Gallia, earlier called Βρίγουλος ( Brígoulos), later   Sauconna ; the modern Saône (Ps.-Plut. De Fluminibus 6). Rising in the Vosges (according to Str. 4,1,11; 3,2 the Alps; Ptol. 2,10,4 -- confusion with  Isara); navigable from its confluence with the  Dubis, with a remarkably slow current, it formed the border between the  Haedui and the  Sequani (Caes. B Gall. 1,12,1) and joined the  Rhodanus near ad Confluentes, opposite  Lugdunum. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Opelt, A., der Grenzstrom zw. Häduern und Sequanern, in: Gymnasium, 1988, 481-492.

Maritima

(114 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] ( M. Avaticorum, Mela 2,78; oppidum M., Plin. HN 3,34; Μαρίτιμα κολωνία, Ptol. 2,10,5; colonia M., Geogr. Rav. 5,3; 4,28). Capital of the Avatici (Gallia Narbonensis). It was preceded as a settlement by a pre-Roman oppidum, whose name is unknown. It is possible that M. was a colonia founded under Caesar or Augustus. The site is not precisely known: on the Étang de la Valduc or the Étang de Berre near Miramas, or, more probably, near Martigues. Important staging-post on the trade route from Massalia to Arelate via Saint-Blaise and La Crau. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G…

Nasi

(328 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Ego, Beate (Osnabrück)
[German version] I. Greece (Νᾶσοι/ Nâsoi). [German version] [I 1] Lowlands in the area of Caphyae in Arcadia Lowlands in the area of Caphyae in Arcadia (Arcadians), to the south of and below the modern village of Daras (known as Dara until 1940), with luxuriant vegetation, as the water of the upper Orchomenian Plain reemerges here in several springs forming the stream Tragus, which flows into the Ladon [2] (Paus. 8,23,2; 8). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography 1 E. Meyer, s.v. N. (1), RE 16, 1793  Ders., Peleponnesische Wanderungen, 1939, 31f., 34, Taf. XI. Pr…

Larisa

(2,121 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Sonnabend, Holger (Stuttgart) | Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Et al.
(Λάρισα; Λάρισσα; Lárisa, Lárissa). Name of numerous locations in Greece and Asia Minor, cf. Steph. Byz. s.v. Λ. [German version] [1] Acropolis of Argos The 289-m high acropolis of Argos with Mycenaean remains (not precisely identified) [1]. The temple of Zeus Larisaios and Athena Polias under the large Venetian castle has been excavated. References: Str. 8,6,7; Paus. 2,24,1; 3f.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Λάρισαι πόλεις. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 N. Vassilatos, Larissa. The Acropolis of Argos, 1994. [German version] [2] City in Achaea Phthiotis Important city in Achaea Phthi…

Matrona

(726 words)

Author(s): Deißmann-Merten, Marie-Luise (Freiburg) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] [1] Term used in family law Under Roman law of the Republican period, there was a difference between the matrona as the legal wife and the mater familias, the wife who was in the manus of her husband and thus belonged to his family (Gellius 18,6,8-9). This difference disappeared along with the marriage with manus ( Marriage), and since Augustus the terms matrona and mater familias are interchangeable in legal texts. In social terms, the word matrona expresses the public function of an honourably wed wife, which in early times possibly corresponded to the functions of the patr…

Caryae

(213 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Καρύαι; Karýai). [German version] [1] Arcadian settlement Arcadian settlement (χωρίον) on the southern shore of the lake of Pheneus (Paus. 8,13,6; 14,1). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) [German version] [2] Settlement in NW-Parnon This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta Settlement in the north-western Parnon range, on Sparta's north-eastern border with Arcadia, either near the modern Analipsis on the banks of the Saranda-Potamos in the north-east of the plain of Kambos, or near Arachova north of the village that once again bears th…

Methana

(277 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (ἡ Μεθάνα; hē Methána or τὰ Μέθανα; tà Méthana). Peninsula and city on the north coast of the Argolid peninsula. The circular peninsula, about 9 km across and with a highest elevation of 743 m, is linked to the mainland by a 300 m wide isthmus. It consists almost entirely of young volcanic rocks and lava flows. The last known eruption, to which a crater and a lava flow on the northwestern coast still bear witness today, took place at…

Gytheumium

(346 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Theatre | Caesar | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones (Γύθ(ε)ιον; Gýth(e)ion). Laconian perioikoi town on the north-western coast of the innermost Laconian gulf in a relatively protected position with good communications links. In the historical period the main harbour for  Sparta ( c. 45 km from G.), forti fied, with shipyards and an artificially laid out harbour (in the Bronze Age the naval bases of the region were Las and Helus). Evidence: Scyl. 46; Xen. Hell. 1,4,11; 6,…

Alba

(194 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Main city of the  Helvii in  Gallia Narbonensis, called Aps in the Middle Ages, since 1903 once again carrying the ancient name that is mentioned only in texts from the 1st cent. AD on (Plin. HN 3,36; 14,43). A. was built in the course of the first two cents. AD, but the settlement of the area is documented since prehistory. Secured knowledge about the history of A. does not exist. The city's wealth was based on viticulture, crafts and commerce (four   collegia ). Destruction of A. by barbarians in the 3rd cent. AD is no longer accepted today.…

Montani

(92 words)

Author(s): Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Inhabitants of the pagi on the hills of the Roman Septimontium According to Varro Ling. 6,24,5-7, the inhabitants of the pagi on the hills of the Roman Septimontium, distinguished from the inhabitants of the other pagi. Uggeri, Giovanni (Florence) [German version] [2] Inhabitants of the Ligurian Maritime Alps Inhabitants of the Ligurian Maritime Alps (Liv. 28,46,11; 14; 40,41,5; Plin. HN 3,135), who often served in the Roman army (cf. Tac. Hist. 2,14). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule, 1969, 364.

Narbonensis

(301 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] The name N. was given in 27 BC to the Roman provincia Transalpina, which was formed from Gaulish areas either side of the Rhodanus (moder Rhone). It had been occupied by the Romans between 125 and 118 BC after a call for help from Massalia in the dispute with the Salluvii tribe. The boundaries of the province were the Mediterranean coast from the Varus (Var) as far as the Pyrenees, the Alps, Lacus Lemanus (Lake Geneva), the upper reaches of the Rhodanus (excluding Lugdunum), the foothills of …

Hermion(e)

(315 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars (epigraphically and literarily Ἑρμιών; Hermiṓn and Ἑρμιόνη; Hermiónē, ethnikon Ἑρμιονεῖς; Hermioneîs). Town in the eastern area of the Argolid, modern Ermioni, whose territory comprised the south-east of the area of Cape Thermisi 6 km east of H. to Cape Iri south of the Bedeni stream. H. owed its importance to the two well-protected harbours, separated by narrow, elong…

Dea Augusta Vocontiorum

(89 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | City of the Vocontii in Gallia Narbonensis, one of the two religious centres with lucus Augusti (Luc-en-Diois), today called Die. Ruins: Water pipes/channels, necropoleis (NE and NW), baths, bridges, villae inside and outside the walls. Inscriptions (CIL 12, 1556-1560; 1563) attest to the existence of temples (Jupiter, Cybele and Attis, Dea Augusta Andarta). Inscr.: CIL 12, 1554-1696. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography Grenier, 1, 1931, 557-560; 4, 1960, 106-111 M. Leglay, s.v. D.A.V., PE, 259f.

Parrhasia, Parrhasii

(111 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Παρρασία/ Parrhasía, Παρράσιοι/ Parrhásioi). Settlement area of the largest Arcadian sub-tribe in West-Arcadia (Hom. Il. 2,608; Str. 8,8,1; Diod. Sic. 15,72,4). The pan-Arcadian sanctuary of Zeus was located in P., on the Lycaeum (Pind. O. 9,143). In the 2nd cent. AD (Paus. 8,27,4; 38,3), P. referred only to the western part of the plain of Megalopolis, with the hill country stretching from the west . Originally, however, the P. stretched further to the south and west (Thuc. 5,33,1; Xen. Hell. 7,1,28). The independence of P. ended with its in…

Redones

(86 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Celtic tribe in modern Brittany (Not. Dign. Occ. 42,36; Notitia Galliarum 3,3; Ptol. 2,8,2: Ῥήδονες ἢ Ῥηΐδονες/ Rhḗdones ḕ Rhēḯdones; Plin. HN 4,107: Rhiedones; CIL XIII 3151). Caesar (B Gall. 2,34; 7,75,4) mentions the R. among the civitates maritimae or Aremoricae. Their capital was Condate (modern Rennes; Breton: Roazhon). In late Antiquity, they were part of the Provincia Lugdunensis III. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography G. Lerroux, A. Provost, Ille-et-Vilaine (Carte archéologique de la Gaule 35), 1990  L. Pape, La Bretagn…

Arelate

(390 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Christianity | | Coloniae | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Colonization | Pilgrimage Town in Gallia Narbonensis, the modern Arles. Originally called Theline by the Greeks (Avien. 689ff. – Phocian foundation?), the town had a Celto-Ligurian name (It. Ant. 299,4; Plin. HN 3,36). Settled from the 6th cent. BC; A’s shipping trade was severely hampered by the silting-up of the Rhône delta, but enjoyed a marked resurgence thanks to the canals built by→ Marius …

Opus

(329 words)

Author(s): Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ὀποῦς/ Opoûs). [German version] [1] Chief town of eastern Locris This item can be found on the following maps: Grain Trade, Grain Import | Boeotia, Boeotians Chief town of eastern Locris (Itin. Anton. 327,4), after which the surrounding countryside, a bay (modern Kolpos Atalantis) of the Euboean Sea and the Locri [1] who lived there were named. O. was either near modern Kyparissi (traces of an ancient settlement) or at modern Atalanti (numerous inscriptional finds: Ὀπούντιοι/ Opoúntioi, IG IX 1, 268-275; 278; δῆμος Ὀπουντίων/ dêmos opountíōn, IG IX 1, 282). The port of O. was C…

Cerynea

(430 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum)
(Κερύνεια; Kerýneia). [German version] [1] Town in Achaea (Arcadian Καρύνεια; Karýneia). Inland town in Achaea (Peloponnese), not originally listed amongst the 12 cities of the Achaean Confederacy in Hdt. 1,145 and Str. 8,7,4. According to Str. 8,7,5, C.'s location was high up in the mountains between Bura and the sea. For a long time, C. was identified with remains found above the village of Rizomylo and the coastal road near the modern Keryneia. Following on from Wilhelm, Meyer suggested to localize the…

Pharae

(247 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
[German version] [1] City in southern Messenia This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Φαραί/ Pharaí, Φηραί/ Phēraí). City in southern Messenia (Str. 8,4,4f.; 5,8; 7,5; Paus. 4,30,2-31,1; Ptol. 3,16,8 (Φεραί/ Pheraí); Steph. Byz. s.v. Φ.; [1. 181]), modern Kalamata. In Homer (Hom. Il. 5,543; 9,151; 293) one of the seven cities Agamemnon promised Achilles [2], Spartan perioikoi city. In 394 BC its territory was devastated by Conon [1] (Xen. Hell. 4,8,7; Nep. Conon 1), made a part of the territory of Messana [2] by Philip [4] II at …
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