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Caphyae

(209 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Arcadians, Arcadia (Καφυαί; Kaphyaí). Town in north-eastern Arcadia, north of the northern plain of Orchomenus, 1 km south-east of the modern Chotusa, with only sparse ancient remains. Votive from the war booty in Delphi of the 5th cent. BC (Syll.3 48). In the Chremonidean War (267-261 BC), C. fought against  Antigonus [2] (Syll.3 434f.,25); afterwards, it belonged to the Achaean League, apart from a short interlude following its capture by Cleomenes III (Plut. Agis and Cleomenes 25,4; Pol. 2,5…

Phere

(57 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φηρή/ Phērḗ, Φηραί/ Phēraí). Town in West Arcadia on the river Alpheus [1] (Hom. Il. 5,541ff.; Hom. Od. 3,488ff.; 15,186ff.). Home of Orsilochus [1], the son of the river god Alpheus [2], and his descendants. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, Arkadisches. Pharai - Pherai - Pharaia in Arkadien, in: MH 14, 1957, 81-88.

Hydrea

(55 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Ὑδρέα; Hydréa). Island on the eastern coast of the Argolian Acte, rocky, not very fertile, settled already in the Mycenaean period, modern Hydra; belonged first to  Hermione, then to Troezen. References: Hdt. 3,59; Paus. 2,34,9; Steph. Byz. s.v. H.; Inscriptions: SEG 1, 79f.; 17, 172-177. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography N. Pharaklas, Ἑρμιονίς, 1972.

Mastramela

(105 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Town of the Salluvii (Gallia Narbonensis) beside a lagoon of the same name (now Étang de Berre) or on an elevation rising above it between Rhodanus (Rhône) and Massalia. The identification with Saint-Blaise is uncertain. It is possible that Maritima Avaticorum was founded by the inhabitants of M. References: Artemidorus, in Steph. Byz. s.v. Μαστραμέλη (πόλις καὶ λίμνη τῆς Κελτικῆς); Plin. HN 3,34 ( stagnum M.); Avien. Ora maritima 701 ( oppidum Mastrabalae priscum). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography G. Barruol, Les peuples préromains du sud-est de la Gaule,…

Lycone

(47 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λυκώνη; Lykṓnē). Mountain range east of Argus with the sanctuary of Artemis Orthia (temple 12.30 × 9.80 m) with a marble statue that is said to be by Polyclitus (Paus. 2,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography I. Kophiniotis, Ἀνασκαφαὶ ἐν Ἀργολίδι, in: AD 1888, 205.

Gorgobina

(67 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Modern La Guerche/Nièvre). City of Gallia Celtica in the region of the  Arverni, later of Aquitania, east of Elaver, south of Aquae Bormonis. The  Boii settled in G. in 58 BC, after the defeat of the Helvetii in the battle against Caesar. G. became Boiorum oppidum (Caes. B Gall. 7,9,6). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography H. Bigeard, A. Bouthier, Carte archéologique de la Gaule 58 (Nièvre), 1996.

Lusi

(304 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λουσοί/ Lousoí; ethnicon inscription Λουσιάτας/ Lousiátas; literary also Λουσιεύς, Λουσεύς probably after the Attic demoticon). Town in northern Arcadia between Cynaetha and Cleitor near modern Chamakou (at a height of about 1,000 m), sanctuary of Artemis Hemera, Hemerasia games. The sanctuary lies in the foothills of Chelmos southwest of modern Ano-L. and Kato-L. above a small plain in the south. Building remains only from the 4th-3rd cents. BC (propylaea, bouleuterion, Doric temple)…

Lycuria

(33 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λυκουρία; Lykouría). City in the plain of Pheneus on the road to Cleitor in Arcadia, on the border between the two cities; cf. Paus. 8,19,4; 20,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum)

Meldi

(141 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] People of Gallia Lugdunensis on the lower Matrona (Strab. 4,3,5; Plin. HN 4,107; Ptol. 2,8,11). The capital was Iatinon (Ἰάτινον, Ptol. 2,8,15; = Fixtinnum, Tab. Peut. 2,4), later called civitas Meldorum (Not. Galliarum 4,7) or Meldis (Ven. Fort. 3,27), modern Meaux. In 55/4 BC, Caesar had the M. build him ships for the expedition to Britain (Caes. BG 5,5,2); however, there was possibly another people by this name on the sea coast. Archaeological finds: coins.; water pipe. Inscriptions: CIL XIII 3023f.; a thea…

Letrini

(97 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Λετρῖνοι; Letrînoi). Village on the road from Elis to Olympia with a sanctuary of Artemis Alpheiaia, to the north of Alpheius [1], localized near modern Pirgos or further west, near the village of Agios Ioannis. In Pausanias' time it only consisted of few remaining houses. References: Paus. 6,22,8-11; Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; 30; 4,2,16; Lycophr. Alexandra 54. The local form of the name is found on inscriptions and in Xen. Hell. 4,2,16 in MSS Λεδρῖνοι ( Ledrínoi). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide 1, EAA2, 447f. E. Meyer, s.v. L., RE Suppl. 11, 876.

Gerenia

(169 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Achaeans, Achaea (In Str. also Γέρηνα; Gérēna, on inscriptions ἁ πόλις τῶν Γερηνῶν, formerly Enópē). Spartan perioecic city on the west side of the Taygetus peninsula, member of the league of  Eleutherolakones during the Imperial period. The location is documented on an inscription (finding-place of a decree with the mention τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦ Μαχάονος, ‘the sanctuary of Machaon’) near today's Kambos, 15 km south-west of Kalamata, home also to a Mycenaean c…

Bracata

(46 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] South-eastern Gaul, later ‘Togata’ or ‘Narbonensis’, named after the trousers worn by the barbarians (Mela 2,74; Plin. HN 3,31). By contrast, the rest of Gaul was called comata (‘hairy’, cf. Cic. Phil. 8,27). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography M. Py, Les Gaulois du midi, 1993.

Corone

(262 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta (Κορώνη; Korone). City on the west coast of the Messenian Gulf, modern Petalidi, c. 30 km south west of Kalamata, at the foot of Mount Mathia (modern Lykodimo) with numerous ancient remains, including parts of the city wall. After Messenia had been freed from Spartan rule by the Boeotians under Epaminondas, a new Boeotian city was allegedly founded (it is impossible to decide conclusively whether there was an older C. [1]); after 184 BC member of the …

Asine

(385 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἀσίνη; Asínē) [German version] [1] Prehistoric settlement in Kastraki This item can be found on the following maps: Dark Ages | Aegean Koine Important prehistoric settlement from the Early Helladic period, located on the rocky headland of Kastraki c. 8 km south-east of  Nauplia on the bay of Tolon; it was taken to be a town of the Dryopes ( Dryops) (Hdt. 8,73; Paus. 4,8,3; 34,9-12). In around 700 BC, the town was destroyed by  Argos [II 1], but the temple of  Apollo Pythaieus survived. Its inhabitants were resettled in Messenia by …

Phaesana

(49 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Φαισάνα; Phaisána). Town on the river Alpheus (Pind. Ol. 6,34f.) in the district of Pisatis (Istrus FGrH 334 F 41; Didymus, schol. Pind. Ol. 6, 55a); Phaesana is possibly identifiable as Phrixa. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography F. Carinci, s.v. Elide, EAA 2. Suppl. 2, 1994, 450.

Gabali

(85 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Gallic tribe in Aquitania, south of the Arverni, north of the Ruteni, on the north-western foot of the Cevennes. Source references: Caes. B Gall. 7,7,2; 64,6; 75,2; Γαβαλεῖς ( Gabaleîs): Str. 4,2,2; Gabales: Plin. HN 4,109; civitas Gabalum of Aquitania I: notitia Galliarum 12,8, modern Gévaudan, Lozère. The Gabali were miners (silver mines) and bred cattle (cheese: Plin. HN 11,240). Main town: Anderitum (Ptol. 2,7,11; Sid. Apoll. Epist. 5,13,2; 7,6,7). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography D. Fabrié, Carte archéologique de la Gaule. 48 (Lozère), 1989.

Abia

(122 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ἀβία; Abía). Coastal town in eastern  Messenia (Plin. HN 4,22; Ptol. 3,14,31), the modern Palaiochora, 6 km south of Kalamata. Its equation with Ἱρή (Hire), one of the seven towns mentioned in Hom. Il. 9,150, is questionable.  Perioikoi-polis of Sparta, from 338 BC controlled by  Messene, with the exception of 183-146 BC, when A. was an independent member of the  Achaean Confederacy (Pol. 23,17); sanctuaries of  Heracles and  Asc…

Calamae

(73 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Καλάμαι; Kalámai). Settlement in south-east Messenia (κώμη, Paus. 4,31,3; χωρίον, Pol. 5,92,4 for 217 BC). Small hillock with remains of walls, 1 km south of the modern Jannitsa. C. probably extended to a further hillside nearby, where today a chapel of Hagios Vasilios is found. The modern Kalamata (officially Kalamai) corresponds with the ancient Pharae. Inscriptions: IG V 1, 1369f. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. Messenien, RE Suppl. 15, 180f.

Lingones

(115 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] Celtic people on the border between Gallia Lugdunensis and Gallia Belgica, between the Senones and the Sequani (Str. 4,1,11; 3,4; 6,11: Λίγγονες/ Língones; Ptol. 2,9,9: Λόγγονες/ Lóngones). The L. did not participate in the battles of the Gauls against Caesar (Caes. B Gall. 1,26,5; 40,11; 7,9,4; 63,7; Plut. Caesar 26,6; Cass. Dio 40,38; 66,3). Already foederati at the time (Plin. HN 4,31), they gained Roman citizenship at the end of the 1st cent. AD (Tac. Hist. 1,78,1). After AD 250, they belonged to the provincia Lugdunensis. Their capital was Andematu(n)num (mod…

Marganeis

(125 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[German version] (Μαργανεῖς/ Marganeîs). Small community west of Olympia in the plain north of the Alpheius between the modern villages of Phloka and Strephi, dependent on Elis as períoikoi . Exact location unknown. In the war of the Spartans against Elis in 401 BC on the Spartan side (Xen. Hell. 3,2,25; Diod. Sic. 15,77,4, Μάργανα/ Márgana), in the peace of 400 BC autonomous (Xen. Hell. 3,2,30), in 294 in the battle at Nemea again on the side of the Spartans (Xen. Hell. 4,2,16), but claimed by Elis (Xen. Hell. 6,5,2). Last mentioned in 364 BC as an…
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