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Peter (the Disciple)

(5,420 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter | Thümmel, Hans Georg | Hardt, Michael
[German Version] I. New Testament 1. The historical figure. Peter, originally called Simon, was born around the turn of the era in a Jewish household in Bethsaida, on the northern shore of the Sea of Galilee (John 1:44; Gal 2:14f.); his father’s name was John (John 1:42) or Jonah (Matt 26:17: Simon bar Jonah; the plural bar Yone [“brigands in the wilderness”] as a term for Zealots is not supported by Giṭ. 56ab and does not suggest that Peter had Zealot sympathies). Peter lived in Capernaum with his wife, his mother-in-law, and his brother Andrew all under one roof (Mark 1:16…

Pius I, Saint

(245 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] According to the Muratorian Fragment (73f.), Pius was the brother of the author of the Shepherd of Hermas, who wrote between 120 and 150 ce. Like his brother, he was probably born as a slave ( verna) in the household of his master, sold to someone in Rome, and there given his freedom. He was a presbyter of one of Rome’s numerous Christian house churches. In the second half of the 2nd century, when Rome was developing monepiscopacy, Pius’s name, still part of the local Roman tradition, was used as a building block for the Roman bishop list (Iren. Haer. III 4.4; cf. 7.2), which a…

Victor I of Rome (Saint)

(277 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] bishop of Rome between c. 189 and 199; he was sympathetic to Praxeas and modalistic Monarchianism (Tert. Prax. 1; Ps.-Tert. Adversus omnes haereses 8). The monarchic episcopate in Rome first attained full development under Victor (Papacy). Victor excommunicated the Roman Valentinians around Florinus (Iren. Fragmenta syriaca 28 in Harvey, 457; Eus. Hist. eccl. V 15; 20.1), the Roman supporters of Montanism (Tert. Prax. 1), the Roman followers of Theodotus (anonymous quotation in Eus. Hist. eccl. V 28.6, 9), and – in the controversy over the date of Easte…

Anicetus von Rom

(255 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] Probably from Syria, Anicetus was one of several presbyter-bishops in Rome who headed the various Christian house churches in the 150s and 160s. Like Clement I before him in the 1st half of the 2nd century ( Herm. 8.3 = Vis. II 4.3) and Soter and Eleutherus after him, he was responsible for the external relations of the city's Christians. Polycarp of Smyrna (Irenaeus Haer. III 3.4; Eusebius Hist. eccl. V 24.16f.; IV 14.5) and (c. 160) Hegesippus (IV 22.3) were therefore his guests when the…

Aquila and Prisca (Priscilla)

(200 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] were a 1st-century Jewish Christian missionary couple. Aquila was born in Pontus; he and his wife earned their living as tentmakers. Such independent tradespeople belonged to the lower classes; there is no evidence that they had a house or a substantial business. The fact that Prisca is sometimes named before Aquila shows that she was consider…


(175 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] presbyter-bishop in Rome between c. 166 and 175, responsible for external relations: his responsibilities included Christians traveling to Rome, organizing aid missions, and probably correspondence with the Corinthians (Dionysius of Corinth in Eus. Hist. eccl. IV 23.10f.). In the second half of the 2nd century, the presbyters in charge of external relations became increasingly more important than the other presbyters in the city, so that Anicetus and Soter became the forerunners of monepiscopacy in Rome. The Roman…


(135 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[German Version] (Cletus), set the tone in one of the numerous Christian household churches in Rome in the 1st century. In the 2nd half of the 2nd century, when the monepiscopacy was forming in Rome, Anacletus's name was still present in Roman local tradition and was employed as a building block in the Roman bishop list (in Iren. Haer. III 3.3). At the end of the 170s, this list fictively retrojected the monepiscopacy into the past. In order to assure tradition, Linus, Anacletus and 10 others allegedly followed the Apostles in the Roman monepiscopacy (Eleutherus; Anicetus). Peter Lampe Bibli…

Victor I.

(236 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[English Version] von Rom, zw. ca.189 und 199 Bf. von Rom, sympathisierte mit Praxeas und dem modalistischen Monarchianismus (Tert.Prax. 1; Ps.-Tert., Adversus omnes haereses 8). Mit V. bildete sich der monarchische Episkopat in Rom erstmals voll aus (Papsttum). V. exkommunizierte die röm. Valentinianer um Florinus (Iren., Fragmenta syriaca, 28, in: Harvey 457; Eus.h.e. V 15; 20,1), die röm. Vertreter des Montanismus (Tert. Prax. 1), die röm. Theodotianer um Theodot (Anonymus bei Eus.h.e. V 28,6.9)…


(157 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[English Version] Soter, zw. ca.166 und 175 Presbyter-Episkope in Rom, der für die Außenkontakte verantwortlich war: Er kümmerte sich um christl. Romreisende, organisierte Hilfssendungen sowie vermutlich eine Briefsendung an die Korinther (Dionysius von Korinth bei Eus.h.e. IV 23,10f.). Die mit den Außenkontakten betrauten Presbyter gewannen in der 2. Hälfte des 2.Jh. zunehmend Bedeutung im Vergleich zu anderen Presbytern in der Stadt, so daß Anicetus und S. erste Wegbereiter des Monepiskopats in …


(4,493 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter | Thümmel, Hans Georg | Hardt, Michael
[English Version] I. Neues Testament 1.Historische GestaltP., urspr. Simon benannt, wurde um die Zeitenwende in einem jüd. Haus in Bethsaida am Nordufer des Sees Genezareth geboren (Joh 1,44; Gal 2,14f.) als Sohn eines Johannes (Joh 1,42) bzw. eines Jona (Mt 16,17: Barjona; die pluralische Bez. »Barjone« [»Strolche draußen in der Wildnis«] für Zeloten ist nicht vor Git 56ab belegt und kann nicht für zelotische Gesinnung des P. sprechen).In Kapernaum wohnte P. mit Frau, Schwiegermutter und Bruder Andreas unter einem Dach (Mk 1,16–18.29f.); die Familie lebt…

Pius I.

(211 words)

Author(s): Lampe, Peter
[English Version] Pius I., dem Muratorischen Fragment (73f.) zufolge Bruder des zw. 120 und 150 n.Chr. schreibenden Autors des Hirten des Hermas; wie sein Bruder wahrscheinlich außerhalb Roms als Haussklave (verna) geboren, nach Rom verkauft und dort freigelassen; Presbyter einer der zahlreichen christl. Hausgemeinden Roms. In der 2. Hälfte des 2.Jh., als sich in Rom der Monepiskopat herausbildete, war P.' Name in der röm. Lokaltradition noch präsent und wurde als Baustein für die röm. Bischofslis…