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Hesiodus (Hesiod)

(1,477 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
lived in Ascra (Boeotia) around 700 BC; roughly one generation younger than Homerus; one of the earliest Greek poets. Works A large number of works were ascribed to Hesiod in Antiquity; three compositions are preserved in their entirety, namely: Theogony, Works and Days, and The Shield. Of these, only the first two are considered to be genuine. The Catalogue of Women became known chiefly through extensive papyri, but it is generally not accepted as Hesiodic. Other works, such as the Greater Ehoiai, only survive in small fragments. papyri Numerous papyri from the Imperial period tha…

Hypsicles

(261 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
lived in Alexandria around 175 BC; Greek mathematician and astronomer. E / T For editions, translations, and commentaries of Perì dṓdekaédrou kaì eikosaédrou cf. Euclides [3], Stoicheîa. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἁναφορικός / Anaphorikós ( Anaph.) De ascensionibus On the Rising of Stars (On Rising Times) Calculation of the time it takes for the signs of the zodiac to rise at the specific geogr. location of Alexandria; division of the ecliptic into 360 degrees 2 Περὶ δωδεκαέδρου καὶ εἰκοσαέδρου / Perì dōdekaédrou kaì eikosaédrou ( Dodek. eiko…

Aristoteles (Aristotle)

(2,199 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 384 BC in Stagira (Chalcidice); d. 322 BC in Chalcis (Euboea); Greek polymath of singular importance. Works Ancient catalogues of Aristotle’s works list approximately 200 titles. Thirty-eight works that have been transmitted in manuscript form are collected in the Corpus Aristotelicum; it contains some spurious material. One other work, the Athènaíòn politeía, became known through papyrus finds. The general nature of these writings is didactic; they were intended for teaching purposes, and were never published. Also known are fragments of 19 dialogues and the Protrepticus, an…

Theognis

(613 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. in the 1st half of the 6th cent. BC in Megara (Greece); d. in the 2nd half of the 6th cent. BC; Greek elegiac poet. Works One thousand three hundred and eighty-nine verses are extant under the name of Theognis. It is doubtful that they are all the work of a single poet. At present, the collective works, known as Corpus Theognideum, are divided into two books. Book 1 (vv. 1–1230) consists of four parts: (1) addresses to gods (vv. 1–18); (2) Cymus poems (vv. 19–254), most likely the part by Theognis himself; (3) excerpts from other Greek elegiacs (vv. 255…

Presocratics (Presocratic philosophers)

(1,301 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Modern term to describe various groups of Greek philosophers who lived in the period before, or contemporary with, Socrates [2] (470–399 BC). In particular, this included the members of the Milesian School (Thales, Anaximander and Anaximenes [1]), the Eleatic School (Parmenides, Zeno [1] of Elea and Melissus [2]), Pythagoras [2] and his school, Xenophanes [1], Heraclitus [1], Empedocles [1], the Atomists (Leucippus [5] and Democritus [1]), as well as the Sophists (Gorgias [2], Hippias [5] and Pr…

Thucydides

(455 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. 460 BC in Athens; d. ca. 400 BC; Greek historian. Works Author of an unfinished monograph on the Peloponnesian War, in eight books. Papyri The papyri have contributed significantly to the evaluation of the medieval manuscripts. Translations The work was translated into vernacular languages as early as the 16th cent. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ὁ πόλεµος τῶν Πελοποννησίων καί Ἀθηναίων/Ho pólemos tôn Peloponnēsíōn kaí Athēnaíōn Historiae History of the Peloponnesian War betw. 421 and 400 BC Account of the Peloponnesian War (431–404…

Origenes (Origen)

(803 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca AD 185/6 in Alexandria; d. in AD 254, probably in Tyre; important Greek Christian theologian and philosopher; teacher at the Catechetical School of Alexandria, and successor to Clemens [3] of Alexandria. Works Only a small part of his works is extant, half of which in Latin translation. Prominent among the lost works are his commentaries and homilies on the Bible. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἑξαπλᾶ (Βιβλία)/Hexaplâ (Biblía) ( Hex.) Hexapla The Sixfold Bible 228–245 Text-crit. edn. of the OT, extant in frgs.: (1) Heb. text; (2) H…

Iambulus

(120 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Terminus ante quem: middle of the 1st cent. BC; author of a utopian Greek novel. Works Fragments of a novel are preserved in the paraphrase of Diodorus [18], Library of History 2,55–60. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 without title Utopian novel with the description of a blissful island Modern translations (complete works) Translator Selection / Vols. Place / Series Year Language 1 B. Kytzler Im Reiche des Eros, vol. 2, 678–684 (Munich) 1983 GE Modern bilingual editions (complete works) Translator Selection / Vols. Place / Series Year Language 1 C.H.…

Frontinus, Sextus Iulius

(676 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
2nd half of the 1st cent. and early 2nd cent. AD; Roman technical and military author, and high-ranking holder of public offices. Manuscripts The Strategemata are preserved in more than 80 manuscripts that fall into two classes. The inferior class is represented by more than 80 manuscripts, while the superior class consists of only three manuscripts, only one of which, Harleianus 2666, contains the entire work. It largely determines the textual constitution. In contrast to the Strategemata, the tradition for De aquaeductu urbis Romeanae is marginal. Fewer than a dozen Humanist…

Ptolemaeus, Claudius (Ptolemy)

(478 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
active in the 2nd cent. AD; important Greek natural scientist. Works Fundamental works on astronomy, astrology, geography, optics, harmonics, and mathematics. Translations Translations of Ptolemaeus into Arabic, and from Arabic into Latin, secured his influence up to the Early Modern age. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/Geōgraphikḕ hyphḗgēsis ( Geogr.)/Chōrographía/Kosmographía Geographia Guide to Geography Handbook of mathematical geogr. with instructions on cartography in 8 bks. 2 Μεγίστη σύνταξις/Megístē sý…

Ap(p)uleius of Madaura

(872 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. AD 125 in Madaurus (North Africa); d. no later than ca. AD 190; novelst, philosopher and orator; of his Latin and Greek works only those in Latin have been preserved. Works The preserved œuvre is heterogenous, and includes: (1) the novel Metamorphoses, (2) rhetorical-biographical works ( Apologia; Florida), and (3) philosophical writings ( De deo Socratis; De mundo; De Platone et eius dogmate). The following must be regarded as pseudepigrapical: Asclepius and Perì hermèneías, the poem Anechomenos ex Menandro, and one poem transmitted in Gellius [6], 19,11,4. No accurate…

Batrachomyomachia

(614 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
Anonymous Greek parodistic animal epic from the 2nd/1st cent. BC; in Antiquity attributed to Homerus [1]. Work This miniature epic is a parodistic adaptation of Aesop’s fable of the mouse and the frog (Aesop; Hausrath Nr. 302). It emulates both the formal language and typified scenes of Homer’s Illiad. The length varies, but generally amounts to ca. 300 lines. Two strikingly different recensions date from the Byzantine period. Manuscripts The Battle of Frogs and Mice became a school text very early on; as a result, a total of about 100 manuscripts of have been preserv…

Iohannes Chrysostomos (John Chrysostom)

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. AD 344 or 347 in Antioch; d. 14 September AD 407 in Comana (Pontus); Greek Christian theologian; patriarch of Constantinople (397–404); known chiefly for his orations; hence the appellation Chrysóstomos (‘Golden Mouth’) since the 6th cent.; the epithet became a proper name in the Middle Ages Works The following works must be considered authentic: 17 theological treatises (e.g. On Vanity and the Education of Children; On the Priesthood; On Virginity), more than 700 orations (sermons, catecheses, and occasional speeches), four commentaries on various books of the…

Archimedes of Syracuse

(742 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. 287 BC in Syracuse; slain during the Roman capture of the city in 212 BC; major Greek mathematician. Works Ten works on mathematics and mechanics are extant. Additional writings are known in fragments or in Arabic adaptations. Manuscripts The textual tradition is outlined by Johan Ludvig Heiberg in his complete edition (vol. 3, Prolegomena). Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Ἔφοδος/Éphodos ( Ephod.) Methodus The Method of Mechanical Theorems Mathematical methodology 2 Ἐπιπέδων ἰσορροπίαι/Epipédōn isorrhopíai De planorum equilibriis …

Philo of Alexandria (Philo Judaeus)

(1,477 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. ca. 15 BC in Alexandria; d. ca. AD 50; Greek-Jewish philosopher, who interpreted Judaism in the categories of Greek philosophy. Works Almost 50 of the (approximately) 75 works listed in the Ecclesiastical History (2,18) by Eusebius [7] are extant, some of these exist only in Latin or Armenian translation. The works can be divided into three main categories: (1) Most of his works are exegetic in nature and deal with the interpretation of the Pentateuch, the five OT books of Moses (Bible). The biography of M…

Achilles Tatius of Alexandria

(383 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
2nd cent. AD; author of a Greek romance novel. Works Novel in eight books. Manuscripts Twenty-three manuscripts are known, but only 12 contain the full text; most manuscripts date from the 16th cent. Works Greek Title Latin Title English Title Dating Brief Description 1 Τὰ κατὰ Λευκίππην καὶ Κλειτοφόντα/Tà katà Leukíppēn kaì Kleitophónta The Adventures of Leucippe and Clitophon 2nd cent. AD Novel about the separation and reunion of the lovers Leucippe and Clitophon Papyri Name / Number Dating Selection Content / Notable Features 1 P.Oxy. 3836 2nd cent. AD Terminus ante quem for the d…

Bible: Vetus Testamentum (Old Testament; Hebrew Bible)

(1,982 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
(without commentaries and modern translations) name for the canon of (older) Jewish scriptures in the Christian Bible; as distinct from the canon of Christian writings that constitute the NT ( Novum Testamentum). Works The basis for the canon of OT writings is the classical Jewish canon, which was probably closed around AD 100 ( Hebrew Bible). It comprises 39 books (according to the now common division based on the Vulgate) and is composed in Hebrew, with the exception of the Aramaic parts of the books of Dan and Ezra. The canon of the Hebrew Bible is a selection…

Hecataeus of Miletus

(201 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
ca. 560–480 BC; early Greek geographer and historiographer. Works Apart from his critique of the map of the world by Anaximander, two further works are known through fragments: Periḗgēsis gēs (‘World Survey’, or ‘Journey Round the World’) and Genealogíai (‘Genealogies’). Hecataeus’ rationalism, and his empirical approach, exerted a crucial influence on the history of geography and historiography. Even though there are a considerable number of fragments (ca. 350), they are mostly very short. Translation / Commentaries English translation of the FGrH with updated commenta…

Persius (Aulus Persius Flaccus)

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 4 December AD 34 in Volaterrae (Etruria); d. 24 November AD 62 in Rome; important Roman satirical poet alongside Lucilius [I 6] , Horatius [7] (Horace) and Iuvenalis . Works Six satires are extant, in the spirit of Stoic philosophy (with a total of 650 verses; the 6th satire is fragmentary). In addition, 14 choliambs are transmitted at the opening or end of the manuscripts; these are generally regarded as introductory poems. According to the early medieval biography, which itself was based on ancient sources, the lyric poe…

Plato

(1,681 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred
b. 428/7 BC in Athens; d. 348/7 in Athens; important Greek philosopher. Works All works published by Plato are completely extant. However, because his works were only put into systematic order some time after his death, some spurious texts have been included in the corpus. The entire corpus is comprised of three main parts: (1) 36 treatises ordered in tetralogies ( Tetr.) (34 dialogues, the Apology of Socrates, and an anthology of 13 letters); (2) an anthology of – probably post-Platonic – definitions ( Hóroi); and (3) 6 minor dialogues ( Perì dikaíou; Perì aretḗs; Dèmódokos; Sísyphos…
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