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(54,308 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle) | Schmitz, Thomas A. | Schmidt, Peter Lebrecht | Schwindt, Jürgen Paul (Bielefeld)
Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) I. Greek (CT) A. Byzantine Philology (ca. 800-1453) (CT) [German version] 1. Terminology (CT) As the scientific study of the literature and language of Greek Antiquity, Byzantine philology, in the tradition of ancient Greek philology, meant primarily grammar, constitution of texts and explanation of texts. It was essentially humanistic, for it understood itself as a means for the linguistic, literary, intellectual and moral renewal of the pr…


(4,775 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG)
Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) [German version] A. Enlightenment as a European Movement (CT) The German word Aufklärung is a metaphor [33] that has equivalents in most European languages: in English, 'Enlightenment' has become customary, in French, lumières, in Italian, illuminismo, in Spanish, ilustración, in Dutch, verlichting. However, only in France and Germany were the terms Aufklärung and lumières actually used at the time. The terms in the other languages were later translations. In France the  Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes marked the …

Third Humanism

(2,778 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG)
Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) [German version] A. Definition (CT) [6] The term Third Humanism (TH) is generally used today to denote a German concept of Humanism oriented toward Antiquity that was developed by the Classical philologist Werner Jaeger in the 1920s. The ordinal numeral 'third' distinguishes this humanism from the German Second Humanism, or Neo-Humanism, of the Humboldt school (ca. 1790-1830) as well as from the international Renaissance Humanism of the 15th and 16th cents. Jaeger himself…


(2,070 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG)
Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) [German version] Ciceronianism (CT) The term Ciceronianism was coined in the 19th cent. as a term for a Renaissance tendency to use the linguistic form and substance of Cicero's (106-43 BC) writings. The suffix -ism was added to Ciceronianus (‘a supporter of Cicero’). The term now means ‘something fashioned, in linguistic form and in philosophical content, in imitation of Cicero’. It is also an expression for a classicistic pattern of behaviour. The originator of the term is unknown; it gained currency through the Storia del Ciceronianismo of R. Sabb…


(2,540 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) | Lessenich, Rolf
Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) [German version] I. Philhellenism in the Broader Sense (CT) The term Philhellenism is derived from Philhellenes ('Friends of the Greeks'; Greek: philhéllēnes). In the broader sense, it designates any cultural or political movement that admires the Greeks and Greece and feels itself connected to them; in the narrower sense, it denotes a Western European and American political and literary movement that supported the Greeks in the 19th cent. in their struggle for liberation from Turkish ru…


(3,811 words)

Author(s): Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG)
Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG) [German version] A. Definition of Terms (CT) The word Neo-Humanism designates a concept of general education which draws its orientation primarily from Greek culture of the 5th and 4th cent. BC. It was coined to make a distinction between German Humanism of the 19th cent. and the international Latin Renaissance Humanism, or 'older humanism', of the 15th and 16th cents.[23]. The goal of this general education was the formation of the individual, the aim of education in gener…


(7,304 words)

Author(s): Balzert, Monika | Landfester, Manfred (Gießen RWG)
Balzert, Monika [German version] A. Concept and Function (CT) Today, translation is understood as both the process and result of reproducing words, sentences and texts of an original language into a target language. Translating serves communication and interaction and is 'culturally' determined. In translation theory, translating is even a partial aspect of communicative action: the translator must not only master the target and the original language and be in possession of specialist knowledge, but must…