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Mesmer, Franz Anton

(360 words)

Author(s): Lauer, Gerhard
[German Version] (May 23, 1734, Iznang on Lake Constance – Mar 5, 1815, Meersburg), physician and natural scientist, and the founder of what is known as “animal magnetism” (Mesmerism). After studying theology in Dillingen and Ingolstadt, Mesmer began to study medicine in Vienna in 1759. In his dissertation of 1766, he outlined his theory of the magnetic fluid which permeates the entire created world. Illness, according to this theory, is a congestion of this cosmic energy, while healing is the res…

Sholem Aleichem

(195 words)

Author(s): Lauer, Gerhard
[German Version] (pseudonym of Salomon Naumo­vich Rabinovich; Mar 2, 1859, Pereyaslav, Ukraine – ¶ May 13, 1916, New York), Yiddish writer. After training as a rabbi, Aleichem worked initially as a private tutor, while publishing essays and features for Hebrew newspapers, increasingly in Yiddish, the vernacular of East European Jews. In 1883 he married Olga Loev and moved to Kiev to earn a living as an independent writer and journalist. In 1905 he left Russia and lived in various places until finally emigrating to New York. His plays, satires, and especially his prose – including Tevye de…

Romanticism

(4,164 words)

Author(s): Lampart, Fabian | Thimann, Michael | Lauer, Gerhard | Hühn, Lore | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. As Epoch 1. Literature. The term “romantic” (from Old Fr. romanz, roman; cf. Ger. romantisch) appeared as early as the 17th century with the meaning “unbridled,” “fantastic,” “wild”; while Romanticism in Europe denotes a period in culture and art. As a movement in literary studies it runs from 1790 to 1825, with offshoots to c. 1850. ¶ Literary Romanticism in Germany is divided into early, high, and late Romanticism. Around 1798, the so-called Jena or early Romantic group (until c. 1806) formed around the journal Athenäum, represented by Friedrich v. Hardenberg …

Romantik

(3,767 words)

Author(s): Lampart, Fabian | Thimann, Michael | Lauer, Gerhard | Hühn, Lore | Rosenau, Hartmut
[English Version] I. Als Epochenbegriff 1.Literarisch Während der Begriff (von altfranz. romanz, roman, »volkssprachlich, nicht lat.«) als engl. romantic und dt. romantisch bereits im 17.Jh. auftrat und »zügellos«, »phantastisch«, »wild« bedeutete, war die R. in Europa eine kultur- und kunstgesch. Epoche; als lit.-wiss. Bewegung ist sie zw. 1790 und 1825 anzusiedeln, mit Ausläufern bis ca.1850. Die lit. R. in Deutschland wird in Früh-, Hoch- und Spätromantik unterteilt. Um 1798 bildete sich um die Zeitschrift »Athenäum« die sog. Jenaer bzw. Frühro…

Scholem Alejchem

(161 words)

Author(s): Lauer, Gerhard
[English Version] (Pseudonym für Scholem Rabinowitsch; 2.3.1859 Perejaslaw, Ukraine – 13.5.1916 New York), jiddischer Schriftsteller. Nach einer Ausbildung zum Rabbiner war Sch. zunächst Hauslehrer, veröff. Aufsätze und Feuilletons für hebr. Tageszeitungen, bald immer mehr in der Volkssprache der osteur. Juden, dem Jiddischen. 1883 heiratete er Olga Loyev, zog nach Kiev, um als freier Schriftsteller und Publizist zu leben. 1905 verließ Sch. Rußland und lebte an wechselnden Orten, bevor er nach New…