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Personality of God

(1,138 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] Discourse of God as person in the Early Church, which first appears in the writings of Hippolytus of Rome ( Contra Noetum 7.1f.), was from the outset intended to express the distinguishing individuation characteristics of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit within the framework of the doctrine of the Trinity (Trinity/Doctrine of the Trinity). However, within the framework of the christological understanding of the one person of Christ in two natures, Boethius defines “person” as rationabilis naturae individua substantia (“an individual substance…

Pneumatology

(371 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] is understood nowadays to mean the theological doctrine of the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit). Given that this usage is widespread today, it is surprising that the term has been used in this way for hardly more than a century. Around 1900, theologians such as Wilhelm Kölling, Karl Hollensteiner, A. v. Oettingen, and later M. Rade, made an effort to introduce the meaning of pneumatology as doctrine of ¶ the Holy Spirit, but it became generally established only in connection with the more vigorous turning of theology towards pneumatological questi…

Novum

(346 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] The problem of the philosophical understanding of newness aroused increasing interest at the beginning of the 20th century – among such thinkers as H. Bergson, N. Berdyayev, C.S. Peirce, A.N. Whitehead, and E. Grisebach – and Ernst Bloch created the category of the novum. “To the new belongs… not only the abstract opposite of mechanical repetition,” as in Emile Boutroux and Bergson, but “a kind of specific repetition: namely of the not yet achieved content of an aim that is meant and intended, attempted and processed into …

Personalism

(1,499 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. General The term personalism denotes a view that places particular value on the personality of God and/or human beings. F.D.E. Schleiermacher ( Reden über die Religion, 1799, 256–258; ET: On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers, 1988) and L. Feuerbach ( Wesen des Christentums, in: Works in 6 vols., vol. V, 1841, 1975, 198f.; ET: The Essence of Christianity, 1853) introduced the term in opposition to pantheism. The transition to its specific use took place in the United States when in 1857 Bronson Alcott named his philosophical system “P…

Information

(834 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Achim | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Ethics I. Philosophy In colloquial usage, the term “information” is often employed in the sense of “disclosure” or “message.” Various media can convey the same information: A x-ray conveys information to a physician that his or her patient is suffering from lung cancer and then the physician can inform the patient in a conversation. Furthermore, the same message can hold different information for different recipients (the patient or the insurance company). In contra…

Emergence

(723 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip | Evers, Dirk | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. Theology and Science – II. Systematic Theology – III. Ethics I. Theology and Science Emergence (from Lat. emergere, “to arise”), an idea that describes the appearance of novel and higher forms, represents an alternative to mechanistic, vitalist (Vitalism and mechanism), reductionist, and preformationist explanations. Emergence claims that complex structur…

Evolution

(3,425 words)

Author(s): Polkinghorne, John | Pollack, Detlef | Hübner, Jürgen | Kubon-Gilke, Gisela | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. History and Cosmology – II. Religious Studies – III. Evolution and Creation – IV. Social Sciences – V. Ethics I. History and Cosmology The significance of the notion of evolution as a historical process taking place through the interaction of contingent factors and regular laws first attracted attention in 18th-century geology, where it served to mediate between the theory of uniformity, espoused by James Hutton (…

Paradise

(5,515 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Leiner, Martin | Rebiger, Bill | Heine, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. History of Doctrine and Dogmatics – IV. Judaism – V. Islam – VI. Buddhism – VII. History of Art and Literature I. Religious Studies The history of the term “paradise” is informative for determining its meaning. The word “paradise” is derived from the ancient Iranian * paridaēza, literally “surrounding wall.” It appears as a loanword in many other languages, for example as the Akkadian pardēsu, the Hebrew פַּרְדֵּס/ pardes or the Greek παράδεισος/ parádeisos. These terms denote an enclosed park or garden (cf. Xeno-¶ phon, Anabasis V…