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Depth-Psychological Exegesis

(949 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
1. Depth-psychological exegesis is any exposition of the Bible (Exegesis, Biblical) that uses depthpsychological concepts, theories, or methods. In European usage, as distinct from American, depth psychology denotes all psychological trends using the unconscious, especially psychoanalysis, the analytic psychology of C. G. Jung (1875–1961), and its further developments (Ego Psychology; Identity; Psychotherapy). As such, it is merely one form of psychological exegesis (G. Theissen, K. Berger). Dep…

Pneumatologie

(353 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[English Version] . In der Gegenwart versteht man unter P. die theol. Lehre vom Hl. Geist (Geist/Heiliger Geist). Bedenkt man, wie üblich dieser Sprachgebrauch heute ist, so verwundert es, daß das Wort P. erst seit kaum 100 Jahren in diesem Sinne gebraucht wird. Um 1900 bemühten sich Theologen wie Wilhelm Kölling, Karl Hollensteiner, A. v. Oettingen und später M. Rade um die Einführung der Bedeutung der P. als Lehre vom Hl. Geist. Allg. durchsetzen konnte sich diese Rede aber erst im Zusammenhang …

Personalität Gottes

(954 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[English Version] . Die Rede von Gott als Person hatte in der Alten Kirche von ihren Anfängen bei Hippolyt (Contra Noetum 7,1f.) an den Sinn, im Rahmen der  Trinitätslehre die individuationsunterscheidenden Merkmale von Gott dem Vater, Gott dem Sohn und Gott dem Geist auszusagen. Demgegenüber definiert Boethius im Rahmen des christologischen Verständnisses der einen Person Christi in zwei Naturen Pe…

Personality of God

(1,138 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] Discourse of God as person in the Early Church, which first appears in the writings of Hippolytus of Rome ( Contra Noetum 7.1f.), was from the outset intended to express the distinguishing individuation characteristics of God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Spirit within the framework of the doctrine of the Trinity (Trinity/Doctrine of the Trinity). However, within the framework of the christological understanding of the one person of Christ in two natures, Boethius defines “person” as rationabilis naturae individua substantia (“an individual substance…

Novum

(346 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] The problem of the philosophical understanding of newness aroused increasing interest at the beginning of the 20th century – among such thinkers as H. Bergson, N. Berdyayev, C.S. Peirce, A.N. Whitehead, and E. Grisebach – and Ernst Bloch created the category of the novum. “To the new belongs… not only the abstract opposite of mechanical repetition,” as in Emile Boutroux and Bergson, but “a kind of specific repetition: namely of the not yet achieved content of an aim that is meant and intended, attempted and processed int…

Pneumatology

(371 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] is understood nowadays to mean the theological doctrine of the Holy Spirit (Spirit/Holy Spirit). Given that this usage is widespread today, it is surprising that the term has been used in this way for hardly more than a century. Around 1900, theologians such as Wilhelm Kölling, Karl Hollensteiner, A. v. Oettingen, and later M. Rade, made an effort to introduce the meaning of pneumatology as doctrine of ¶ the Holy Spirit, but it became generally established only in connection with the more vigorous turning o…

Personalism

(1,499 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. General The term personalism denotes a view that places particular value on the personality of God and/or human beings. F.D.E. Schleiermacher ( Reden über die Religion, 1799, 256–258; ET: On Religion: Speeches to Its Cultured Despisers, 1988) and L. Feuerbach ( Wesen des Christentums, in: Works in 6 vols., vol. V, 1841, 1975, 198f.; ET: The Essence of Christianity, 1853) introduced the term in opposition to pantheism. The transition to its specific use took place in the United States when in 1857 Bronson Alcott named his philosophical system “P…

Personalismus

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[English Version] I. Allgemein P. bez. eine Anschauung, die auf die Personalität Gottes und/oder des Menschen bes. Wert legt. F. Schleiermacher (Reden über die Rel., 1799, 256–258) und L. Feuerbach (Wesen des Christentums, in: Werke in sechs Bänden, Bd.5, 1975, 198f.) haben den Begriff P. als Gegenbegriff zu Pantheismus eingeführt. Der Übergang zum spezifischen Gebrauch geschah in den USA, als Bronson Alcott 1857 sein philos. System als P. bez. W. Whitman interpretierte P. in seinem Aufsatz Personalism (1868) vom transzendentalistischen Indivi…

Novum

(293 words)

Author(s): Leiner, Martin
[English Version] . Nachdem das Problem der philos. Erfassung von Neuheit zu Anfang des 20.Jh. verstärktes Interesse gefunden hat bei Denkern wie H. Bergson, N. Berdjaev, Ch.S. Peirce, A.N. Whitehead, E. Grisebach, hat E. Bloch die Kategorie des N. geschaffen. »Zum N. gehört … nicht nur der abstrakte Gegensatz zur mechanischen Wiederholung« wie bei Emile Boutroux und Bergson, sondern »eine Art spezifischer Wiederholung: nämlich des noch ungewordenen Zielinhalts selber, der in den progressiven Neuh…

Information

(834 words)

Author(s): Stephan, Achim | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Ethics I. Philosophy In colloquial usage, the term “information” is often employed in the sense of “disclosure” or “message.” Various media can convey the same information: A x-ray conveys information to a physician that his or her patient is suffering from lung cancer and then the physician can inform the patient in a conversation. Furthermore, the same message can hold different information for different recipients (the patient or the insurance company). In contra…

Emergence

(723 words)

Author(s): Hefner, Philip | Evers, Dirk | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. Theology and Science – II. Systematic Theology – III. Ethics I. Theology and Science Emergence (from Lat. emergere, “to arise”), an idea that describes the appearance of novel and higher forms, represents an alternative to mechanistic, vitalist (Vitalism and mechanism), reductionist, and preformationist explanations. Emergence claims that complex structur…

Evolution

(3,425 words)

Author(s): Polkinghorne, John | Pollack, Detlef | Hübner, Jürgen | Kubon-Gilke, Gisela | Leiner, Martin
[German Version] I. History and Cosmology – II. Religious Studies – III. Evolution and Creation – IV. Social Sciences – V. Ethics I. History and Cosmology The significance of the notion of evolution as a historical process taking place through the interaction of contingent factors and regular laws first attracted attention in 18th-century geology, where it served to mediate between the theory of uniformity, espoused by James Hutton (…

Paradise

(5,515 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Leiner, Martin | Rebiger, Bill | Heine, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Bible – III. History of Doctrine and Dogmatics – IV. Judaism – V. Islam – VI. Buddhism – VII. History of Art and Literature I. Religious Studies The history of the term “paradise” is informative for determining its meaning. The word “paradise” is derived from the ancient Iranian * paridaēza, literally “surrounding wall.” It appears as a loanword in many other languages, for example as the Akkadian pardēsu, the Hebrew פַּרְדֵּס/ pardes or the Greek παράδεισος/ parádeisos. These terms denote an enclosed park or garden (cf. Xeno-¶ phon, Anabasis V…

Paradies

(4,801 words)

Author(s): Pezzoli-Olgiati, Daria | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Leiner, Martin | Rebiger, Bill | Heine, Peter | Et al.
[English Version] I. ReligionswissenschaftlichDie Gesch. des Begriffs P. ist für die Bestimmung seiner Bedeutung aufschlußreich. Die Bez. P., die von altir. *paridaēza, wörtl. »Umwallung«, abgeleitet ist, erscheint als Lehnwort in vielen anderen Sprachen: z.B. als akkad. pardēsu, hebr. פַּרְדֵּס/pardes oder griech. παρα´δεισος/para´deisos. Diese Begriffe bezeichnen einen eingefriedeten Park, eine Gartenanlage (vgl. Xenophon, Anabasis VI 29,4) und in der Achämenidenzeit speziell die königliche Domäne). Erst in der LXX, durch die Verwen…