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Malawi (Vol 4, 2007)

(3,847 words)

Author(s): Dzimbiri, Lewis B.
See also Malawi 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022. Contents Volume 4, 2007. The strained relations between President Bingu wa Mutharika and his predecessor Bakili Muluzi deteriorated further and created enormous tensions in the political arena. As before, Muluzi teamed up in parliament with Malawi Congress Party (MCP) President John Tembo to ensure crucial government policies were deliberately frustrated so that implementation was either delayed or…
Date: 2017-02-01

Ḥurriyya

(6,429 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F. | Lewis, B.
, “freedom,” an abstract formation derived from ḥurr “free” corresponding to Hebrew ḥōr , Aram. ḥēr ( ḥerūt̲ā ), widely used also in Muslim languages other than Arabic. Already in pre-Islamic times, “free” was known not only as a legal term denoting the opposite of “unfree, slave” ( ʿabd [ q.v.]) but also as an Ethical term denoting those “noble” of character and behavior. The legal concept of “freedom” continued to be used as a matter of course by Muslim jurists, who were inclined to give preference to the presumption of a free status for individuals in doubtful cases [see ʿabd …

Ẓulm

(2,783 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha | Lewis, B.
(a., verbal noun of form I), basically meaning, according to the authoritative lexicologists, “putting a thing in a place not its own” (Lane, LA, TA), i.e. displacement. In the moral sphere, it denotes acting in such a way as to transgress the proper limit and encroach upon the right of some other person. In common usage, ẓulm has come to signify wrongdoing, evil, injustice, oppression and tyranny, particularly by persons who have power and authority. Frequently it is therefore used as the antonym to ʿadl [ q.v.], inṣāf [ q.v.] and ḳisṭ and (sometimes by expressi…

ʿĀsḳalān

(1,173 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R. | Lewis, B.
, a town on the coast of southern Palestine, one (Hebrew: ʾAs̲h̲ḳelōn) of the five Philistine towns known to us from the Old Testament; in the Roman period, as oppidum Ascalo liberum , it was (according to Schrürer, Geschichte des Jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu 2, ii, 65-7) "a flourishing Hellenistic town famous for its cults and festal games" (Dercetis-Aphrodite-shrine); in the Christian period a bishop’s see (tomb of the tres fratres martyres Aegyptii ). ʿAsḳalān was one of the last towns of Palestine to fall into the hands of the Muslims. It was taken şulḥ an by Muʿāwiya shortly aft…

Ḥurriyya

(6,671 words)

Author(s): Rosenthal, F. | Lewis, B.
(a.) «liberté», dérivé abstrait de ḥurr «libre» correspondant à l’hébreu ḥōr et à l’araméen ḥēr (herūṭā) et largement employé aussi dans des langues islamiques autres que l’arabe. Dès l’époque préislamique, ḥurr était connu non seulement comme terme juridique désignant le contraire de «non-libre, esclave» ( ʿabd [ q.v.]), mais aussi comme terme éthique s’appliquant à la noblesse de caractère ou de conduite. Le concept juridique de «liberté» a continué d’être employé naturellement par les juristes musulmans qui, dans les cas douteux, étaient …

ʿAsḳalān

(1,174 words)

Author(s): Hartmann, R. | Lewis, B.
, ville du littoral méridional de Palestine, une des cinq villes philistines que mentionne l’Ancien Testament (en hébreu ʾ As̲h̲ḳ e lōn); à l’époque romaine, oppido Ascalo liberum, et d’après Schürer ( Gesch. des Jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu 2, II, 65-7): «ville prospère du monde hellénique, célèbre par ses cultes et par ses jeux» (sanctuaire de Derketo-Aphrodite); à l’époque chrétienne, siège épiscopal (tombe des très fratres martyres Acgyptii). ʿAsḳalān fut une des dernières villes de Palestine qui tombèrent aux mains des Musulmans; elle fut prise ṣulḥ an par Muʿāwiya peu …

Ẓulm

(2,993 words)

Author(s): Badry, Roswitha | Lewis, B.
, (a., nom verbal de 1ère forme), signifie principalement, après les lexicologues faisant autorité, «mettre une chose à un endroit qui n’est pas sa place» ¶ (Lane, LA, TA), c’est-à-dire déplacement. Dans le domaine de la morale, il désigne le fait d’agir en dépassant (en allant au-delà de) ses propres limites et en empiétant sur les droits d’une autre personne. Dans l’usage courant, ẓulm en est venu à désigner le fait de causer un tort, faire du/le mal, pratiquer l’injustice, l’oppression et la tyrannie, en particulier par des personnes détenant pouvoir et …

Malawi (Vol 3, 2006)

(3,415 words)

Author(s): Tangri, Roger | Dzimbiri, Lewis B.
See also 'Malawi' in 2004 | 2005 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022. Contents Volume 3, 2006. The power struggle between President Bingu wa Mutharika and his predecessor, Bakili Muluzi, continued to dominate the political scene. The political feuding was exacerbated by the government's anti-corruption campaign, which was directed mainly against Muluzi, the vice-president and other opposition supporters. The opposition was seeking to undermine Mutharika, initiall…
Date: 2017-02-01

Malawi (Vol 2, 2005)

(3,495 words)

Author(s): Tangri, Roger | Dzimbiri, Lewis B.
See also 'Malawi' in 2004 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022. Contents Volume 2, 2005. The ongoing political conflict between the president and his immediate predecessor as head of state distracted government from conducting its business and caused parliament to lose focus in the midst of a severe hunger crisis that threatened more than four million of a total population of 12 m. During the course of the year, the political crisis intensified, with the fo…
Date: 2017-02-01

Malawi (Vol 6, 2009)

(3,734 words)

Author(s): Dzimbiri, Lewis B. | Chikapa-Jamali, Tiyesere Mercy
See also Malawi 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022. Contents Volume 6, 2009. Dr Bingu wa Mutharika's landslide victory in the presidential elections of 19 May caused a major transformation of the political landscape. The regional voting mainly determined by ethnic identities that had characterised the three previous multi-party elections was virtually absent. The dramatic swing of the political pendulum to a parliament dominated by the Democratic Pe…
Date: 2017-02-01

Malawi (Vol 9, 2012)

(3,408 words)

Author(s): Chikapa-Jamali, Tiyesere Mercy | Dzimbiri, Lewis B.
See also Malawi 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2013 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022. Contents Volume 9, 2012. Poor socio-economic and political governance characterised the beginning of the year, with continued shortages of fuel and foreign currency. This resulted in the dollar competing with the kwacha (K) as a medium for purchase amidst continued executive arrogance and defiant presidential behaviour. The death in office of President Bingu wa Mutharika on 5 April was one of the m…
Date: 2017-02-01

Malawi (Vol 10, 2013)

(3,753 words)

Author(s): Chikapa-Jamali, Tiyesere Mercy | Dzimbiri, Lewis B.
See also Malawi 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022.Contents Volume 10, 2013. The massive abuse of public funds popularly called ‘Cashgate’ was the year’s most dramatic story. This saga affected yet again the donor confidence that President Banda had tried to rebuild after the death of her predecessor, Bingu wa Mutharika, and it resulted in the suspension of aid and loans. The year also witnessed a lot of activity by political parties as they prepar…
Date: 2017-02-01

Malawi (Vol 11, 2014)

(3,340 words)

Author(s): Chikapa-Jamali, Tiyesere Mercy | Dzimbiri, Lewis B.
See also Malawi 2004 | 2005 | 2006 | 2007 | 2008 | 2009 | 2010 | 2011 | 2012 | 2013 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022.Contents Volume 11, 2014. Malawi’s tripartite election was the first of its kind in the country’s history. The incumbent president, Mrs Joyce Banda, lost to Peter Mutharika, the Democratic Progressive Party (dpp) presidential candidate and brother of the late former president Bingu wa Mutharika. The suspension of aid and loans by donors continued in response to massive looting of public funds popularly known as Cashgate. Thi…
Date: 2017-02-01

al-Abnāʾ

(423 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Lewis, B.
, "the sons", a denomination applied to the following: (I) The descendants of Saʿd b. Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm, with the exception of his two sons Kaʿb and ʿAmr. This tribe inhabited the sandy desert of al-Dahnāʾ. (Cf. F. Wüstenfeld, Register zu den geneal. Tabellen der arab. Stämme ). (II) The descendants born in Yaman of the Persian immigrants. For the circumstances of the Persian intervention in Yaman under Ḵh̲usraw Anūs̲h̲irwān (531-79) and the reign of Sayf b. Ḏh̲ī Yazan, as told by the Arabic authors, cf. sayf b. d̲h̲ī yazan. After the withdr…

Derebey

(1,591 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Lewis, B.
, ‘valley lord’, the Turkish name popularly given to certain rulers in Asia Minor who, from the early 12th/18th century, made themselves virtually independent of the Ottoman central government in Istanbul. The Ottoman historians usually call them mutag̲h̲allibe , usurpers, or, when a politer designation was needed, K̲h̲ānedān . great families. The derebeys became in effect vassal princes, ruling over autonomous and hereditary principalities. In time of war they served, with their own contingents, in the Ottoman armies, w…

Ifrand̲j̲

(2,995 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hopkins, J.F.P.
or Firand̲j̲ , the Arabic term for the Franks. This name, which probably reached the Muslims via the Byzantines, was originally used of the inhabitants of the empire of Charlemagne, and later extended to Europeans in general. In medieval times it was not normally applied to the Spanish Christians [see andalus , d̲j̲illīḳiyya and below], the Slavs [see ṣaḳāliba ] or the Vikings [see mad̲j̲ūs ii], but otherwise was used fairly broadly of continental Europe and the British Isles. The land of the Franks was called ifrand̲j̲a (Persian and Turkish Firangistān ). The earliest Muslim notions o…

Had̲j̲d̲j̲

(8,288 words)

Author(s): Wensinck, A. J. | Jomier, J. | Lewis, B.
(A.), pèlerinage à la Mekke, ʿArafāt et Minā, la cinquième des cinq «colonnes» ( arhān) de l’Islam. On l’appelle également le grand pèlerinage par opposition à la ʿumra [ q.v.] ou petit pèlerinage. Cette observance annuelle a marqué et continue de marquer profondément le monde musulman. Ceux qui n’y participent pas suivent les pèlerins par la pensée; les prédicateurs et actuellement la presse, la radio et la télévision les y aident en fournissant doctrine et informations. Pour la communauté musulmane elle-même, cet événemen…

Ifrand̲j̲

(3,029 words)

Author(s): Lewis, B. | Hopkins, J.F.P.
ou Firand̲j̲, terme arabe désignant les Francs. Ce mot, transmis probablement aux Musulmans par les Byzantins, s’appliquait à l’origine aux habitants de l’empire de Charlemagne, avant de s’étendre aux Européens en général. Au moyen âge, il ne s’employait pas pour les Chrétiens d’Espagne [voir Andalus, Ḏj̲illīḳiyya], les Slaves [voir Ṣaḳāliba] ou les Vikings [voir Mad̲j̲ūs, II], mais par ailleurs s’appliquait de façon générale à l’Europe continentale et aux îles britanniques. Le territoire des Francs s’appelait Ifrand̲j̲a (en persan et en turc Firangistān). Les notions les plu…

al-Abnāʾ

(422 words)

Author(s): Zetterstéen, K.V. | Lewis, B.
, « les fils », dénomination appliquée aux groupes suivants: I. Descendants de Saʿd b. Zayd Manāt b. Tamīm, à l’exception de ses deux fils Kaʿb et ʿAmr. Cette tribu habitait le désert de sable d’al-Dahnāʾ (cf. F. Wüstenfeld, Register zu den geneal. Tabellen der arab. Stämme). ¶ 2. Descendants, nés au Yémen, des Persans établis dans ce pays. Pour les circonstances de l’intervention des Persans au Yémen sous Ḵh̲usraw Anūs̲h̲irwān (531-579 de J.-C.) et le règne de Sayf b. Ḏh̲ī Yazan, d’après les récits des auteurs arabes, voir Sayf b. Dhī Yazan. Après le retrait des troupes étrangères, Sa…

Derebey

(1,634 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H. | Lewis, B.
, «seigneur de vallée», nom populaire donné par les Turcs à certains chefs d’Asie Mineure qui, à partir du début du XIIe/XVIIIe siècle, s’étaient rendus virtuellement indépendants du gouvernement central ottoman d’Istanbul. Les historiens ottomans les désignaient généralement sous le nom de mutag̲h̲allibe, usurpateurs, ou, quand il fallait les nommer plus poliment, k̲hānedān, grandes familles. Les derebeys devinrent effectivement des princes vassaux qui gouvernaient des principautés autonomes et héréditaires. En temps de guerre, ils servaient, av…
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