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Sciritis

(115 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Σκιρῖτις; Skirîtis). Northern border region of Laconia (Thuc. 5,33,2) between the eastern Arcadian and Spartan basins, in the north about 13 km wide and in the south about 4 km, a slate region of the northwestern slopes of the northern Parnon mountains without any larger settlements. It was originally counted as part of Arcadia (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σκίρος). In the 5th cent. BC the Sciritae had the status of Spartan períoikoi . In 369 BC it was annexed to Megale polis (Xen. Hell. 6,5,24 ff.; 7,4,21; Diod. Sic. 15,64,3 ff.; Syll.3 665,31 f. from 164 BC). Lienau, Cay (Münst…

Ophis

(63 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ὄφις/ Óphis). River on the plain of Mantinea that originally flowed through the city; when the city was reestablished in 370 BC it was diverted to flow around it (Paus. 8,8,4; 7; Xen. Hell. 5,2,4f.; Diod. Sic. 15,12,1) and into the Katavothras at the western edge of the plain. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. O. (1), RE 18, 649.

Mathia

(26 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Μαθία). Chain of mountains above Corone in Messenia (Paus. 4,34,4), modern Likodimo. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. M., RE 14, 2195.

Lycaeum

(426 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύκαιον; Lýkaion). In the broad sense, the entire mountain mass consisting of various limestones west of the plateau of Megale Polis in Parrhasia (Paus. 8,2,1; 38,2ff.; 4,20,2; 8,41,3; Str. 8,3,22; Paus. 8,2,1; Thuc. 5,54,1). Polybius reckoned the L. to be among the largest mountain ranges of Greece (in Str. 4,6,12; ὤρεα μακρά in Theoc. 1,123). The L. mountain range in antiquity was rich in springs and forests; today it still has extensive fir forests (Paus. 8,38,3f.). It was fam…

Erymanthus

(168 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἐρύμανθος; Erýmanthos). [German version] [1] Mountain ridge in the north west Pelopponese A mountain range extending up to 2,224 m in height and consisting of several chains stretching north-east to south-west; located in the north-western Peloponnese in the border area between  Elis and  Achaea, the earlier north-western mountain border of  Arcadia. Composed of layers of limestone, it drops away sharply for over 25 km in the north-west towards the flysch hills of Voundoukia; today also Olonos. The setting…

Parthenias

(41 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Παρθενίας/ Parthenías). Right-bank tributary of the Alpheius [1], rising from the lower slopes of the Foloi, debouching east of Olympia; the present-day Bakireïko. Sources: Str. 8,3,32; Paus. 6,21,7. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. P., RE 18.4, 1886.

Hira

(70 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἱρή/ Hirḗ, Ἰρή/ Irḗ, Εἶρα/ Eîra). Mountain stronghold in the inaccessible ravined area in the south of the upper Neda on the northern border of Messenia, possibly on the 864 m high Hagios Athanasios near Kakaletri (traces of ancient fortifications).  Aristomenes [1] led the battle against the Spartans from here in 500-490/489 BC (Third Messenian War). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography Philippson/Kirsten 3,2, 357 F. Kiechle, Messenische Studien, 1959, 86ff.

Helisson

(214 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Ἑλισσών; Helissṓn). [German version] [1] River in Arcadia River in Arcadia with abundant water at all seasons, tributary of the Alpheius [1], rises on the north-west slope of the Maenalum range, firstly flows south, then, turning west, in a narrow gorge penetrates the central mountains of Arcadia, composed of lime, flows through the Megalopolis Basin and flows out to the west of this into the Alpheius (Paus. 5,7,1; 8,29,5; 30,1f.). An important connecting route to northern Arcadia (today the Tripolis-Vitina road) runs through the upper valley of the H. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Li…

Selinus

(1,320 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Σελινοῦς/ Selinoûs). Name of several rivers and towns. [German version] [1] Tributary of the Alpheius [1] Southern tributary of the Alpheius [1] which enters west of Olympia, modern Krestena (Xen. An. 5,3,8; Paus. 5,6,6). Lienau, Cay (Münster) [German version] [2] River in Achaea River in Achaea, which originates on Mount Erymanthus near Leontium close to modern Vlasia, flows through the territory of Aegium and enters the Corinthian Gulf east of modern Valimitika. Today again known as S. (Str. 8,7,5 [1. 82 f.]; Paus. 7,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Baladié, Le P…

Denthalii

(96 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Δενθάλιοι; Denthálioi). Laconian border region near Messenia on the western slope of the northern Taygetus around the source of the Nedon, with a sanctuary of Artemis Limnatis, contested by Sparta and Messenia and finally granted to Messenia by Tiberius (Steph. Byz. s.v. D.; Tac. Ann. 4,43; Paus. 4,4,2; 31,3). Inscription: IG V 1 p. 260f. no. 1371-1378. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography L. Roß, Reisen im Peloponnes, 1841, 1ff. F. Bölte, s.v. D., RE 3A, 1312, 67ff. N. Valmin, Études topographiques sur la Messénie ancienne, 19…

Minthe

(61 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] [1] Mountain range in Triphylia (Μίνθη; Mínthē). Mountain range in Triphylia, 1344 m high, composed of chalk, modern Alivaina. Traces of a sacrificial site on its peak; Str. 8,3,14 mentions sanctuaries of Hades and Demeter on the slopes. Cf. Ptol. 3,14,35. Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. M., RE 15, 1934. [German version] [2] see Mint see Mint

Arcadians, Arcadia

(879 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg)
(Ἀρκάδες, Ἀρκαδία; Arkádes, Arkadía). [German version] A. Geography Central inland mountainous region of the  Peloponnese with a mean height of 500 m above sea level. The borders of ancient A. are not identical with those of the modern nomos Arkadia with its chief place of Tripolis (founded in the 14th cent. AD, Turkish name: Tripolitsa). To the north, A. extended to the massifs of  Cyllene (Ziria, 2376 m), Oroania (Chelmos, 2355 m), and  Erymanthus (Olonos, 2224 m); in the south-west, the sanctuary of …

Oenus

(113 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Οἰνοῦς/ Oinoûs). [German version] [1] Left-hand tributary of the Eurotas in Laconia Left-hand tributary of the Eurotas in Laconia, again called Inous today (previously Kelefina; cf. Pol. 2,65,7ff.; 66,7; Liv. 34,28,1). Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. O. (1), RE 17, 2280f. [German version] [2] Spartan perioikoi community Spartan community of períoikoi of unknown location; mentioned by Alcm. fr. 92d because of its wine (also Ath. 1,31cd; Steph. Byz. s.v. Οἰνοῦς); decree of proxenia by Argos for a οινόντιος [1]. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 P. Charneux, I…

Artemisium

(188 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ἀρτεμίσιον; Artemísion). [German version] [1] Coastal strip of Euboia facing Magnesia A. was probably the ancient name for the entire coastal strip of  Euboea facing the  Magnesia peninsula (Plin. HN 4,64). Close to the modern village of Artemision, above the bay of Pevki, are the remains of a small temple of Artemis ‘facing towards the east’ (Proseoa), which as an amphictyonic sanctuary also formed the cultural centre of the region around  Histiaea. The famous bronze statue of Poseidon (nowadays in the N…

Ladon

(581 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Λάδων; Ládōn). [German version] [1] Dragon The dragon referred to in Apoll. Rhod. 4,1396, elsewhere referred to only as a ‘serpent’ ( óphis, drákōn), who guards the apples of the Hesperides (as also mentioned on Probus in Verg. G. 1,244); he has a hundred heads and many voices. Mythographers have him either be descended directly (as a chthonic beast) from Gaia (as is Typhon) or from related monsters (Phorcys and Ceto, the parents of Echidna and grandparents of the Lernean Hydra in Hes. Theog. 333-335; Echidna and…

Manthurea

(75 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Μανθ(ο)υρέα; Manthouréa/Manthyréa). The name given both to the south western part of the eastern Arcadian plain near Tegea and to a deme of Tegea (Μανθυρεῖς; Manthureîs). In M. there was originally a cult of Athena Hippia which Tegea adopted at the time of Augustus along with the cult image. Evidence: Paus. 8,44,7; 45,1; 47,1; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μ. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. M., RE 14, 1255f.

Maenalum

(242 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαίναλον, Μαίναλος, Μαινάλιον; Maínalon, Maínalos, Mainálion). Limestone mountain range about 30 km long between the eastern Arcadian plain and the Helisson valley, up to 1981 m high, with extended fir woods; in modern times without a standardized name; modern Tripolis is at its southern foot. Sacred to Pan, who was called ‘Maenalian’ after it; in poets often in the genitive, hence it also means ‘Arcadian’. The mountains also appear as the hunting grounds of Atalante and Artemis. M. i…

Ossa

(232 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Ὄσσα/ Óssa). [German version] [1] Mountain range in central Greece, modern Kissavos Mountain range (1978 m) of lime and slate, divided from Olympus [1] in the north by the erosion gorge that is the Vale of Tempe and from Pelion (modern Kissavos) in the south by the Agia depression. Politically it was part of Magnesia [1]. The steep eastern slopes down to the Aegaean were uninhabited, in spite of a coastal road from Homole in the north to Meliboea [2]. On the western slopes there were Thessalian towns (Elat…

Menius

(58 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Μήνιος; Mḗnios). A small tributary of the Peneius in the territory of the city of Elis, which Hercules was said to have diverted in order to clean the stables of Augias. It cannot be identified with certainty as a tributary of the modern Revmata. Attested in Paus. 5,1,10; 6,26,1; Theoc. 25,15. Lienau, Cay (Münster)

Metope

(286 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Building panel In Greek building inscriptions μετόπιον/ metópion i.e. μετόπη/ metópē (supporting documents: [1. 29-32]), in Vitruvius metopa (cf. [2]) is the opening or gap, which in Greek columned buildings is framed by two triglyphs ( triglyphos) in a Doric Frieze. In wooden buildings metopes were openings next to the projecting beam ends that were finished as carved triglyphs and probably served to ventilate the roof truss. The space between the triglyphs was already closed up in early Greek…
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