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Horney, Karen

(170 words)

Author(s): Loder, James E.
[German Version] (Sep 16, 1885, Hamburg – Dec 4, 1952, New York) was a psychoanalyst in Berlin, Chicago, and New York, where she distinguished herself from the psychoanalysts there with her critique of the orthodox position of psychoanalysis and its interpretation. Today she is regarded as a neo-psychoanalyst. For Horney, sexuality was not the primary issue in psychopathology, and she questioned paradigms such as the Oedipus complex. Horney's main emphasis was upon anxiety and neurosis as a social…

Allport, Gordon Willard

(151 words)

Author(s): Loder, James E.
[German Version] (Nov 11, 1897, Montezuma, IN – Oct 9, 1967, Cambridge, MA), personality psychologist. Allport received his doctorate from Harvard in 1922 and taught at Dartmouth and Harvard. During a period in which the field of psychology was dominated by the study of behaviorism on the one hand, and by psychoanalysis on the other, Allport studied personalit…

Affect

(767 words)

Author(s): Bader, Günter | Loder, James E.
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion and Ethics – II. Practical Theology I. Philosophy of Religion and Ethics I. The term affect (Gk: πάθος/ páthos) originates from the Greek and Latin tradition rather than the biblical (here: “heart”). The term, however, became very popular in the history of Christian theology and piety. While, unlike ἦθος ( ēthos), the term denotes the unregulated passion and suddenness of emotion, πάθη are experienced and described as the forceful essence of divine power. In mythical texts, therefore, Φόβος ( Phobos), ᾽Ελπίς ( Elpis) are for example found …

Behaviorism

(1,343 words)

Author(s): Loder, James E. | Herms, Eilert
[German Version] I. Concept – II. Practical Theology – III. Ethics I. Concept Behaviorism has tried, like its historical antecedents, to explain human nature on the model of the animal or the machine. In 1913, John-Broadus Watson (1878–1958) established behaviorism as a modern research trend in psychology. Following Darwinist evolution theory, behaviorism argues that we can understand and control a…

Functionalism

(1,146 words)

Author(s): Jödicke, Ansgar | Stephan, Achim | Loder, James E.
[German Version] I. Science of Religion – II. Philosophy – III. Practical Theology I. Science of Religion A functional analysis describes the parts of a system on the basis of their function for the whole. Pioneered by É. Durkheim, functionalism was developed in Anglo-Saxon cultural anthropology by B. Malinowski and Alfred R. Radcliffe-Brown, primarily as a heuristic framework for ethnographic observation, to be distinguished from theory-driven evolutionism. In sociology, by contrast, it produced functionalis…

Anxiety and Fear

(1,909 words)

Author(s): Michaels, Axel | Ringleben, Joachim | Schulz, Heiko | Loder, James E.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Philosophy – III. Philosophy of Religion – IV. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies Anxiety (Angst) or fear (anxiety is the deeper but less harmful form of the feeling) – S. Freud scarcely differentiates between the terms – is an alteration in feeling and behavior triggered by pain, actual or expected, loss, or expected punishment. Somatic responses triggered by a perceived threat – perspiration, increased pulse rate, a sense of confinement (cf. Lat. angustus, “narrow, constricted”) – are associated…

Experience

(3,622 words)

Author(s): Willaschek, Marcus | Stock, Konrad | Köpf, Ulrich | Loder, James E.
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Church History – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. Dogmatics – VI. Ethics – VII. Practical Theology I. Philosophy In a broad sense shaped by daily life in the world, “experience” has been understood since Aristotle ( Metaph. 980b28–982a3) as a kind of knowledge of reality that rests on practical contact and is related to paradigmatic individual cases (Gk ἐμπειρία/ empeiría; Lat. experientia). It does not, therefore, lead to systematic knowledge but remains “knowledge of…