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Nigeria

(1,559 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. General Nigeria’s population of some 115 to 120 million makes it the most populous country in Africa. Its present boundaries date from 1914, when the two protectorates of Northern and Southern Nigeria were united under Governor Frederick Lugard. The name Nigeria is a foreign name, first suggested in 1898 by Flora Shaw (later Flora Lugard), an expert on West Africa for The Times, for what were then several British protectorates along the Niger. The Niger, which enters Nigeria from the northwest, and it largest tributary, the Benue, which co…

Church of South India

(511 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] Founded in the year in which India gained political independence (1947), the Church of South India (CSI) attracted considerable international attention as the first worldwide union of episcopal and non-episcopal churches. The preliminary steps were initiated in May 1919 at an Indian pastors' conference chaired by Bishop V.S. Azariah in Tranquebar, during which representatives of the Anglican Church and of the South Indian United Church (a union o…

New Thought Movements

(888 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] New Thought is a collective term for a variety of teachings whose common element is the belief that “positive thinking” can lead to mastery of life and particularly to the healing of disease (Sickness and healing). Its genesis may be traced to Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802–1866), who began to develop his so-called “argumentative method” of healing in Belfast, Maine, in 1849. His approach was to convince the patients that their illnesses were the result of erroneous beliefs, groun…

Johnson, James

(216 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (c. 1835/1836, Freetown, Sierra Leone – May 18, 1917, Bonny, Nigeria). Johnson was educated at Fourah Bay College and became an Anglican pastor in Freetown (1861–1874) and Lagos (1874–1891). After Bishop S.A. Crowther had been deposed (1891), Johnson did not join any of the African independent churches, but founded the Anglican Niger Delta Native Pastorate, which was independent of the mission (1892). In 1900, he was named deputy to the bishop. Johnson advocated an appreciation of traditional religion ( Yoruba Heathendom, 1899; Yoruba religion) and the accomm…

Braide, Garrick Sokari

(347 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (between 1883 and 1887, Abonnema, Niger delta – Nov 15, 1918, Bakana) was the founder of the first great prophetic movement in Nigeria. What he accomplished was a reinterpretation of the Christian faith. His ministry led to many conversions in southeast Nigeria. Braide, a fisherman and fishmonger, began his ecclesiastical career as a catechist…

Indirect Rule

(194 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] After early beginnings in India (the “princely states”), the British developed the classic model of indirect rule in northern Nigeria. Frederick Lugard ( The Dual Mandate, 1922) sought to use the existing emirate structures for administering the territory (co-opting local legislation, administration of justice, and collection of taxes). Dependence on the British weakened the emirs but enabled them to extend their influence to ethnic groups over which they had previously had no control, leading to conflict…

Knak, Siegfried

(216 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (May 12, 1875, Zedlitz – May 22, 1955, Berlin), director of the Berlin Mission and vice-chairman of the Deutscher Evangelischer Missionsrat (DEMR). Like B. Gutmann and C. Keyßer, Knak supported a conception of mission that sought to base congregational life on the people's own customs and traditions ( Zwischen Nil und Tafelbai, 1931; Erfahrungen und Grundgedanken der deutschen evangelischen Mission, 1938). In 1933 Knak called on the church to support Hitler ( NAMZ, 1933, 401–421) and integrate missions into the Reichskirche; later, however, he opposed the “Ar…

Blyden, Edward Wilmot

(346 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 3, 1832, St. Thomas, Caribbean Islands – Feb 7, 1912, Freetown, Sierra Leone), politician and scholar in West Africa and prominent representative of African cultural nationalism. Barred from attending a theological college in the USA, Blyden emigrated to Liberia in 1851 and attended Alexander High School in Monrovia. In his publications, he supported the “return” of the Afro-Americans ( A Voice from Bleeding Africa on Behalf of Her Exiled Children, 1857) to Liberia (independence in 1847). In 1858, Blyden was ordained…

Graul, Karl

(154 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Feb 6, 1814, Wörlitz – Nov 10, 1864, Erlangen). Graul studied in Leipzig (1834–1838), then taught in Italy and Dessau, before he assumed the leadership of the Evangelical-Lutheran Missionary Society in Saxony (after 1847, the Leipzig Mission). Graul journeyed to India (1849–1853, Reise nach Ostindien, 5 vols., 1854–1856). He learned Tamil and became a recognized Dravidologist ( Bibliotheca Tamulica, 4 vols., 1854–1865). Graul demanded the academic-theological training of missionaries and the establishment of indigenous people's churches…

Rethinking Group

(276 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] A group of Indian theologians that attracted attention with Rethinking Christianity in India (1939), a collection of essays edited by D.M. Devasahayam and A.N. Sudarisanam in the context of the 1938 World Missionary Conference in Tambaram. G.V. Job, S. Jesudasen, D.M. Devasahayam, E. Asirvatham and A.N. Sudarisanam each contributed an essay; most of the contributions were written by the lay theologians Pandippedi Chenchiah (five) and V. Chakkarai ¶ Chetty (three), who were related by marriage. Both were converts to Christianity from the Brahmin ca…

Chakkarai Chetty, Vengal

(328 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Jan 17, 1880, Madras – Jun 14, 1958, Madras) came from a respected Chettiar family and was raised as a Hindu. He graduated from Madras Christian College in philosophy; at this time he became a Christian (baptized Feb 22, 1903). Initially, Chakkarai worked as a teacher; at the same time he studied law and was active as a lawyer from 1909 to 1912. In 1913, he joined the Danish Missions to work among educated Hindus. In the same year, together with…

Independent Evangelical Missionary

(184 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Ger. Freimissionar), a person carrying out missionary work without ecclesial mandate. Since a comparable mission authority was lacking in German Protestantism until the founding of the Danish-Halle Mission, individually operating missionaries played an important role, as for instance J. v. Welz, who, after an unsuccessful call for mission, traveled to Surinam, and P. Heyling, who was active in Ethiopia. During the 19th century, independent Evangelical missionaries such as K.A.F. G…

Kibira, Josiah Mutabuzi

(239 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1925, Kashenje, Bukoba, Tanzania – Jul 18, 1988, Rwamishenye, Tanzania) earned a diploma at the Teachers' Training College in Tabora, worked as a teacher at Kahorore High School in Bukoba from 1950 to 1957, and completed his studies in Protestant theology in Hamburg, Germany, in 1961. In the same year, Kibira became a member of the Faith and Order Commission of the World Council of Churches (WCC). After his M.A. examination at the School of Theology of the University of B…

Burundi

(529 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (27,834 km2) is situated in what is known as the interlake area of the central African Great Rift Valley just south of the equator. The name derives from the kingdom of Urundi, whose dynasty dates back to the 17th century. 82.9% of the approx. 6.6 million inhabitants are Hutu, 14.5% Tutsi, and 1% Twa. The dynasty of the Ganwa came from the group of Banyaruguru-Tutsi. The common language is Kirundi. The traditional religion of Burundi is characterized by faith in the divine being Imana and by the summoning of the spirit Ki…

Staritz, Katharina Helena Charlotte

(187 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] ( Jul 25, 1903, Breslau [Wrocław] – Apr 3, 1953, Frankfurt am Main), one of the first women ordained in the Old Prussian Union (1928). As municipal vicar of Breslau (appointed ¶ Nov 1933), she championed the cause of the city’s Jewish citizens, helping them emigrate and thus probably saving the lives of more than 100 Jews (National Socialism: I, 4). After her circular letter against the “Jewish badge” dated Sep 12, 1941, became generally known, she was relieved of her duties; expelled from Breslau, she went to …

Hocking, William Ernest

(156 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Aug 10, 1873, Cleveland, OH – Jun 12, 1966, Madison, NH). Hocking initially studied mechanical engineering at Iowa State, then philosophy at Harvard. In The Meaning of God in Human Experience (1912), he attempted to synthesize the Idealism of J. Royce with the Pragmatism of W. James to develop a philosophy of religion on an empirical basis. As Alford Professor at Harvard from 1920 to 1943, he built on this beginning ( Living Religious and a World Faith, 1940; The Coming World Civilization, 1956; etc.), but also addressed the political problems of the Middle Ea…

Protten, Christian Jakobus

(168 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] (Sep 15, 1715, Accra, Gold Coast [today Ghana] – Oct 23, 1769, Accra), son of a Togolese mother and a Danish father, studied theology in Copenhagen from 1727 to 1735 and then accompanied N. v. Zinzendorf to Herrnhut. He returned to Elmina in West Africa in 1737 as the first Moravian missionary (Bohemian and Moravian Brethren: II, 4). During a long stay in Germany (1740–1756), in 1746 he married Rebecca Freundlich (1718–1780), a former slave from the Caribbean. From 1756 to 1761 he…

Independent Church Movements

(1,500 words)

Author(s): Koschorke, Klaus | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. History – II. Missiology I. History Independent local forms of Christianity and the aspiration to be emancipated from the control of European missionaries appeared early on in the history of the emerging churches of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Examples include the movement initiated by the female African prophet D.B. Kimpa Vita in the Congo during the early 18th century, which temporarily threatened Portuguese rule in the region. Independent church movements became a widespread…

Tanzania

(868 words)

Author(s): Ludwig, Frieder | Mungure, Elieshi
[German Version] I. General The name Tanzania is an artificial coinage introduced in 1964 with the formation of the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The republic has an area of 942,000 km2, including the islands of Pemba, Zanzibar, and Mafia, with some 2,000 km2. The most important vegetation zones are savannahs, veldt, semidesert, and the fertile coastal plain on the Indian Ocean. The continental area includes 54,000 km2 of inland lakes, primarily along the Great African Rift Valley. With an altitude of 5,895 m, Kilimanjaro reaches the highest elevat…

World War I

(1,771 words)

Author(s): Leonhard, Jörn | Ludwig, Frieder
[German Version] I. Church History World War I stands for a hitherto unknown escalation in the intensity and violence of warfare in the name of the nation and the national state. As the first fully-fledged technological and industrial mass conflict – or in the words of M. Weber: as the Maschinenkrieg (“war of machines”) of the “modern military state” –, World War I revealed the extent to which the expectations of national integration had changed and gave rise to a new form of wartime reality: as a “total war,” it confronted all the warring stat…
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