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(170 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, ‘a decking-out, an adorning’, Turkish verbal noun derived ultimately from ton , ‘clothes’. The word is used in Ottoman Turkish in two restricted meanings: ‘fleet of ships, navy’ (presumably a caique of Ital. ‘armata’), for which see art. baḥriyya , iii (adding to bibliography H. and R. Kahane and A. Tietze, The Lingua Franca in the Levant , Urbana 1958, 1-45). ‘decoration of the streets of a city’ (synonyms: s̲h̲enlik , s̲h̲ehr-āyīn ) for a Muslim festival or on a secular occasion of public rejoicing such as a victory, an accession, a royal bi…


(422 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, aḥmed , son of Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn ‘al-Kātib’ (and hence known as yazi̊d̲j̲i̊-og̲h̲lu aḥmed ) and younger brother of the famous Yazi̊d̲j̲i̊-og̲h̲lu Meḥmed, Turkish mystic writer and ‘popular educator’ who flourished in the middle of the 9th/15th century. The brothers, after studying under Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Bayram [ q.v.] of Ankara, lived a retired life together at Gelibolu, Aḥmed practising such austerities and becoming so emaciated that he was called—and calls himself in his books—‘Bī-d̲j̲ān’, i.e., ‘The Lifeless’. To judge from the date of the Muntahā (see below),…

D̲j̲aʿfar Čelebi

(387 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(864/1459-921/1515), Ottoman statesman and man of letters, was born at Amasya (for the date see E. Blochet, Cat. des mss. turcs , ii, 1-2), where his father Tād̲j̲ī Beg was adviser to Prince (later Sultan) Bāyezīd. After rising in the theological career to müderris , he was appointed nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊ by Bāyezīd II (in 903/1497-8, see Tâci-zâde Sa’dî Çelebi Münşeâtı , ed. N. Lugal & A. Erzi, Istanbul 1956, 85). Suspected of favouring Prince Aḥmad in the struggle for the succession, Ḏj̲aʿfar, with other of Aḥmad’s partisans, was dismis…


(251 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, town in E. Thrace, the Byzantine Τζουρουλὀς (for the various forms of the ancient name see Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. Tzurulon (E. Over-hummer]); it lies on the main road and railway between Istanbul and Edirne, 155 kms. by rail from Istanbul, facing N. over the Čorlu Su, a tributary of the Ergene. The town was taken by the Ottomans early in the reign of Murās I. In Ḏj̲um. I 917/Aug. 1511 Bāyezīd II defeated Prince Selīm near Čorlu, at a place called Ṣi̊rt-köyü by Luṭfī Pas̲h̲a ( Taʾrīk̲h̲ , Ist. 1341, 202). There were extensive waḳf s at Čorlu for Meḥemmed II’s külliyye at Ist…

Ḥusayn (Ḥuseyn) Efendi, known as Hezārfenn

(714 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(“[man of] a thousand skills”, i.e., “polymath”), Ottoman man of letters of the 11th/17th century, was the son of a certain Ḏj̲aʿfer, a native of Cos (Turkish: Istanköy). After completing his education in Istanbul he was for a time in government service as a Treasury official, and then devoted himself to writing and teaching. The generally accepted date for his death, 1103/1691-2, appears to rest solely on a deduction of G. Flügel ( Handschriften . . . Wien , ii, 104); since he was already about 70 years old in 1671 (Babinger, 228, n. 2), the date gi…


(541 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(also Ig̲h̲ribos/z , Āg̲h̲ribos/z , Egribos ), Turkish name for the island of Euboea and its chief town, the classical Chalkis. Originally the name of the narrow strait separating Chalkis from the mainland, Εὔριπος (vulg. ῎Εγριπος) was already by the 12th century currently used for the town; a supposed connexion with the bridge over the strait produced from the ace. [εἰς τò]ν ῎Εγριπον ‘Negroponte’, the regular Western name for both town and island. In Byzantine times Euboea forme…


(277 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, tak̲h̲alluṣ of an Ottoman poet and historian, whose personal name was Aḥmed. He was born in about 871/1466-7, the son of a certain Suleymān Bey. At the age of 13 he entered the service of Bāyezīd as a page, but was banished from court for some offence and is reported to have fled to Harāt. He was pardoned but not received back into favour. He was writing his History in the last year of Bāyezīd’s reign (917/1511-2) and probably died in that year. Bihis̲h̲tī is said to have written the first Ḵh̲amsa [ q.v.] in Ottoman Turkish; of his met̲h̲newīs survive: Leylā we Med̲j̲nūn , Mak̲h̲zen al-Esrār , Mihr ü…

ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ Čelebi

(515 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, Pīr Muḥammad b. ʿAlī b. Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn b. Muḥammad Naṭṭāʿ (ʿĀs̲h̲i̊ḳ is his tak̲h̲alluṣ ), Ottoman man of letters, born at Prizren in 926/1520, his father then being ḳāḍī of Üsküb, died at Üsküb in S̲h̲aʿbān 979/Jan. 1572. He came of a family of sayyids , originally from Baghdad, his great-grandfather having come to Bursa in the time of Bāyezīd I. His childhood was spent in Rumeli, but after studying in Istanbul (where his teachers included Abu ’l-Suʿūd) he settled at Bursa and became mutawalli of the waḳfs of Emir Sultan, a post hereditary in his family…

Ḥād̲jd̲j̲ī Bayrām Walī

(581 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(? 753/1352-833/1429-30), patron saint of Ankara and founder of the order of the Bayrāmiyya [ q.v.], was born at the ¶ village of Solfasol, 7 km. north-east of Ankara, the son of a certain Koyunlud̲j̲a Aḥmad; his personal name was Nuʿmān. After studying at Ankara and Bursa, he taught at the Kara Medrese at Ankara, but abandoned the theological career when invited by S̲h̲eyk̲h̲ Ḥāmid (on whom see S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ . tr. Med̲j̲dī, 74 f. = tr. Rescher, 29 f.) to join him at Kayseri (they are said to have met on Ḳurbān bayrami̊ , whence he was given the name Bayrām); as his mürīd he ac…


(297 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(also Inos/z ), Ottoman name for the classical Ainos, now Enez, town on the Aegean coast of Thrace (40° 43′ N., 26° 03′ E.) on the east bank of the estuary of the Merič ([ q.v.], anc. Hebros). From classical times until the last century it was a prosperous harbour, on an important trade route from the upper Merič valley and across the isthmus from the Black Sea, with valuable and much-coveted saltpans. With Lesbos (T. Midilli, [ q.v.]) it passed in 1355 to Francesco Gattilusio, as the dowry of Maria, the sister of John V Palaeologus. On the death of Palamede Gattilusio in…


(1,165 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, also karlo-īli , “The land [see īl ] of Carlo”, Ottoman name for a district of north-west Greece (Acarnania and most of Aetolia), as corresponding approximately to the territories of Carlo Tocco I (1381-1430). Carlo’s father, Leonardo, had been created count of Cephalonia in 1357; he had extended his original dominions of Cephalonia, Zante and Ithaca to embrace the island of Leucas (Leucadia, Santa Maura; Turkish: Aya Mavra) and, on the mainland, Vonitza (1362). Laying claim to the Despotate of Epirus, in 1417 Carlo made himsel…


(286 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
( Argiri , Ergeri ), Ottoman name of Argyrokastro, Alb. Gjinokastër, principal town of Albanian Epirus (40° 13′ N., 20° 13′ E.) near the foot of the eastern slopes of the Mali Gjerë; overlooking the wide and fertile valley of the Drin, a tributary of the Voyutsa (Vijose), it controls the route from Valona into Northern Greece. The town, near the site of the ancient Hadrianopolis, probably takes its name from that of an Illyrian tribe. The district came under Ottoman control in the reign of Bāyezīd I. In the defter of 835/1431 ‘Argiri-ḳaṣri̊’ (its district being called wilāyet-i Zenebis̲h̲ , i.e…


(1,024 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, idrīs , Mewlānā Ḥakīm al-Dīn Idrīs b. Mewlānā Ḥusām al-Dīn ʿAlī al-Bidlīsī, historian of the Ottomans, was probably of Kurdish origin. He became nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i at the Aḳ Ḳoyunlu court, and in the name of Yaʿḳūb Beg wrote a letter of congratulation to Bāyezīd II in 890/1485 which was much admired (Hammer-Purgstall, ii, 290). In consequence of the growing power of S̲h̲āh Ismaʿīl he fled to Turkey in 907/1501-2, where he was welcomed by Bāyezīd and commissioned to write the history of the Ottoman Ho…

Kemāl Pas̲h̲a-Zāde

(2,524 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, or ibn(-i) kemāl , usual appellations of s̲h̲ams al-dīn aḥmad b. sulaymān b. kamāl pas̲h̲a , Ottoman scholar and S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām, b. ?873/1468-9, d. 940/1534. Life . The identity of his grandfather is obscure. Kemālpas̲h̲azāde mentions ( VII. Defter , facs., 293, 325)—but with no hint that he is descended from him—a Kemāl Pas̲h̲a who was appointed to the vizierate upon the dismissal of Maḥmūd Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.] in 872/1468 and died in 875/1470 (for a letter of congratulation, undated, from Prince Bāyezīd, see N. Lugal and A. Erzi, Fâtih devrine âit münşeât mecmuası

D̲j̲alālzāde Muṣṭafā Čelebi

(626 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(ca. 896/ 1490-975/1567), known as ‘Ḳod̲j̲a Nis̲h̲ānd̲j̲i̊’, Ottoman civil servant and historian, was the eldest son of the ḳāḍī D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn from Tosya (for whom see S̲h̲aḳāʾiḳ , tr. Rescher, 297 = tr. Med̲j̲dī, 466). His talents having attracted the attention of Pīrī Pas̲h̲a, in 922/1516 he turned from the scholarly career to become a clerk to the dīwān-i humāyūn . He was private secretary to Pīrī Pas̲h̲a during his Grand Vizierate (924/1518-929/1523) and to his successor Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a; his services in helping to regulate the…


(3,052 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, verbal noun of T. devs̲h̲ir- ‘to collect’ (with various spellings, cf. TTS s.v. derşürmek ), Ottoman term for the periodical levy of Christian children for training to fill the ranks of the Janissaries (see yeni čeri ) and to occupy posts in the Palace service and in the administration (Gr. παιδομάζωμα). The same verb is used in the earliest Ottoman sources (Giese’s Anon . 22, l. 12 = Urud̲j̲ 22, 1. 4) for the ‘collection’ of the fifth part of prisoners from the dār al-ḥarb due to the Sultan as pend̲j̲ik [ q.v.], from whom, according to tradition, the Janissary corps was first raised …


(439 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, mak̲h̲laṣ of ʿAbd al-Raḥmān b. Ḥasan (b. Edirne 1012/1603-4, d. Serez 1087/1676), historian of Edirne. His father, ‘Sal-bas̲h̲’ or ‘K̲h̲abbāz-zāde’ Ḥasan Efendi, held a series of posts in the ʿilmiyye career, dying in 1039/1630 as a müderris at the Ṣaḥn in Istanbul (ʿAṭāʾī, 733). Ḥibrī, after studying at his native Edirne and at Istanbul, followed the same career: he held a series of posts as müderris, mostly at Edirne, but after 1070/1659 was appointed ḳāḍī of various places, the last being Serez, where he is buried. His minor works are (1) a version in Turkish, entitled Riyāḍ al-ʿārifīn


(206 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, Ottoman name for Karpenésion (Karpenisi, Carpenitze), a small township in northern Aetolia. The district was probably occupied under Bāyezīd I [ q.v.], when the adjacent regions of Salona, Domakia and [Neo-] Patras fell to the Turks (Hammer-Purgstall, i, 249-50, following Chalcocondyles); when it is first named in a published Ottoman source (the d̲j̲izya returns of 894/1489, Belgeler , i/1 (1964), 100, n. 2), as K.rāb.n.s̲h̲, it is grouped with “Badra” (Neopatras, Badrad̲j̲i̊k), Domeke, Čatald̲j̲a (Pharsala) and Mundeniče (Bodon…


(654 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
(T. er ‘male’, tog̲h̲ri̊l ‘kite’).— 1. According to tradition, the name of the father of ʿOt̲h̲mān I [ q.v.], the founder of the Ottoman dynasty; but it appears in no source, Byzantine or Islamic, before the end of the 14th century, when it is mentioned in a letter (authentic?) of Bāyazīd I to Timur (Ferīdūn, Muns̲h̲aʾāt 2 , i, 127) and in the Ḏh̲āt al-s̲h̲ifāʾ (sub anno 699) of al-Ḏj̲azarī [ q.v.]. The traditions presented in the 9th/15th century Ottoman works, largely legendary in tone, fall into two main groups: (a) Ertog̲h̲rul, together with Gündüz Alp and Gök …

Bas̲hīr Čelebi

(222 words)

Author(s): Ménage, V.L.
, a physician who flourished in the middle of the 9th/15th century. According to the little treatise Ḥikāyet-i Bes̲h̲īr Čelebi (of which one MS. has been published in facsimile by İ. H. Ertaylan as Târih-i Edirne : Hikâyet-i Beşir Çelebi , Türk Edebiyati Örnekleri iii, Istanbul 1946), he was summoned from Konya to Edirne by Meḥemmed II very soon after his accession; he expounded to the Sultan the advantages of the climate of Edirne and recommended to him the site for the building of the New Palace (begun in 855/1451, cf. IA, article edi̇rne [M. Tayyib Gökbilgin], p. 117b). The Ottoman history…
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