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Paul V, Pope

(282 words)

Author(s): Mörschel, Tobias
[German Version] (Camillo Borghese, born Sep 17, 1552, Rome; pope May 16, 1605 – Jan 28, 1621). Descended from a Sienese patrician family, the learned and morally principled canon lawyer rose through the interplay typical of his era: curial career, simony, and informal relationships. Following his election in 1605, his pontificate was among the longest in the 16th and 17th centuries. It was characterized by numerous conflicts with the Catholic states, which sought to limit the influence ¶ of Rome. Of major importance was his conflict with Venice from 1605 to 1607, which l…

Pius VIII, Pope

(228 words)

Author(s): Mörschel, Tobias
[German Version] (Francesco Saverio Castiglioni, born Nov 20, 1761, Cingoli, near Ancona; pope Mar 31, 1829 – Nov 30, 1830). After an education befitting his noble lineage, Castiglioni was ordained to the priesthood in Rome in 1785. After completing several years of legal studies, he served as vicar general in various dioceses. As bishop of Montalto (1800), he came into conflict with Napoleonic Italy. Appointed bishop of Cesena and made a cardinal in 1816, he was translated to Frascati in 1821 and…


(20,018 words)

Author(s): Brennecke, Hanns Christof | Zimmermann, Harald | Mörschel, Tobias | Wassilowsky, Günther | Köpf, Ulrich
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages and Reformation – III. Modern Period and Today – IV. Chronological List of the Popes I. Early Church 1. Definition. If papacy is defined as the claim (based on Matt 16:16–19; 28:20; Luke 22:31f.; John 21:15–19) of the bishops of Rome as successors and heirs to Peter to leadership along with jurisdictional and magisterial primacy (I) within the universal church, papacy in the strict sense dates only from the Middle Ages in the Latin West. In the Early Church, the point at iss…