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Bonwetsch, Gottlieb Nathanael

(137 words)

Author(s): Mühlenberg, Ekkehard
[German Version] (Feb 17, 1848, Norka, Saratow, Russia – Jul 18, 1925, Göttingen) studied Protestant theology in Dorpat (1866–1870; Tartu), Göttingen (1874/75), and Bonn (1877/78), serving churches among the Germans in the Volga in the interim. In Dorpat Bonwetsch was lecturer (1878) and professor of historical theology (1883); he was then called to …

Augustine of Hippo

(4,400 words)

Author(s): Mühlenberg, Ekkehard
[German Version] (Nov 13, 354, Thagaste – Apr 28, 430, Hippo Regius) I. Life – II. Works – III. Influence I. Life 1. Youth. Augustine himself has supplied a wealth of information with a relative chronology (esp. in his Confessiones, Retractationes, and Epistulae); the biography of his younger friend Possidius is also important. Augustine was born in the city of Thagaste in Roman North Africa (Souk Ahras, Algeri…

Aland, Kurt

(178 words)

Author(s): Mühlenberg, Ekkehard
[German Version] (Mar 28, 1915, Berlin – Apr 13, 1994, Münster). For his academic study (1933– 1938), for engagement in the life of the Confessing Church ( Bekennende Kirche), editing of the “ Junge Kirche”, and for entry to the world of scholarship, Berlin was the right place to be. From H. Lietzmann, Aland learned the ideal of scholarship, as is documented in his edition of Lietzmann's correspondence in 1979. He maintained this ideal in scholarly projects (e.g. TLZ, GCS, TU), resisting state control with imagination and integrity. After the N…

Ephesus, Councils of

(835 words)

Author(s): Mühlenberg, Ekkehard
[German Version] I. Council of 431 – II. Council of 449 I. Council of 431 1. Occasion The imperial synod called by Emperor Theodosius II at Pentecost (Jun 7) 431 was already ¶ dissolved in October because an irreconcilable division into two synods had developed. This synod only become the third ecumenical council subsequently, although not in the Apostolic Church of the East. The synod's task was to clarify legal matters – perhaps a charge leveled by four Egyptian monks against Cyril of Alexandria? – and christological doctrine (Christology). 2. Background Nestorius, starting from A…