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(2,662 words)

Author(s): Mühlhahn, Klaus
China The largest state by population and area in eastern Asia; a republic from 1911 to 1949. Although China was scarcely involved militarily in the First World War, the war nevertheless represented an important turning point for the country. The consequences of the war fundamentally changed both China’s status in international politics and its internal political and social circumstances. China’s involvement in the First World War was a long-term result of the expansion of European imperialism. Increased rivalry between the Great Powers, in their strugg…


(4,881 words)

Author(s): Mühlhahn, Klaus | Leutner, Mechthild | Trampedach, Tim
1. 1860-1918 During the "long" 19th century until World War I, the structures and changes in international politics largely shaped the German-Chinese relations. The rivalry between the European colonial powers and China's increasing loss of territorial and economic self-determination were the dominant factors. Although German missionaries and merchants occasionally came in contact with China since the 17th century (Christianity), German countries established formal relations with China only at a relatively late date in comparison to othe…