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PIR AḤMAD ḴᵛĀFI, ḠIAṮ-AL-DIN

(703 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
PIR AḤMAD ḴᵛĀFI, ḠIĀṮ-AL-DIN (d. 857/ 1453), Timurid vizier who served over thirty years under Šāhroḵ (r. 1409-47) and his successors until his death in 1453.Pir Aḥmad Ḵᵛāfi b. Jalāl-al-Din Esḥāq b. Majd-al-Din Moḥammad b. Fażl-Allāh came from Ḵᵛāf, reportedly from a distinguished family, but we know nothing about his early career (Manz , p. 88; Sarafrāzi et al., p. 70).  He was appointed to the divān (see DIVĀN ii.) in 1418, after the death of the chief vizier Faḵr-al-Din, who had brought the administration into chaos.  The Timurid histories portray Pir Aḥmad …
Date: 2021-06-17

Mīrāns̲h̲āh b. Tīmūr

(438 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
( ca. 768-810/ ca. 1367-1408), the third son of Tīmūr [ q.v.] (Tamerlane), born of a concubine named Mengliček. Due to his marriage to two Činggisid princesses, he bore the title güregen (“royal son-in-law”). In 782/1380-1, he was appointed governor of K̲h̲urāsān, shortly before its full conquest. He shared power there with several of Tīmūr’s senior commanders, and spent much of his time outside the province, accompanying Tīmūr to western Persia in 786-7/1384-5, to K̲h̲wārazm and the Ḳi̊pčaḳ steppe in 790/1388-9 and 792-3/1390-1, and on the “five-year campaign” to Per…

S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲

(1,719 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
b. Tīmūr , fourth son and successor of Tīmūr (Tamerlane), was born on 14 Rabīʿ II 779/20 August 1377 of one of Tīmūr’s concubines, Tag̲h̲āy Tarkān Āg̲h̲ā. In 794/1392 Tīmūr appointed him to the new fortress of S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲iyya north of the Jaxartes, and in 799/1397 made him governor of K̲h̲urāsān. Sīstān, and Māzandarān. S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲ was married to two prestigious women, Gawhars̲h̲ād bt. G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-Dīn Tark̲h̲ān and Malikat Ag̲h̲a, the Činggisid widow of his eldest brother ʿUmar S̲h̲ayk̲h̲. As governor of K̲h̲urāsān. S̲h̲āh Ruk̲h̲ was in a strong position in the stru…

Bāysunghur, Ghiyāth al-Dīn

(814 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
Ghiyāth al-Dīn Bāysunghur Mīrzā b. Shāh Rukh (799–837/1397–1433) was a Tīmūrid prince famous for his cultural patronage. He was born on 21 Dhū l-Ḥijja 799/15 September 1397 to Shāh Rukh and his powerful wife Gawharshād. As a younger son, he was probably raised at his parents’ court, and they seem to have favoured him for succession. Like his brothers, Bāysunghur held military and administrative responsibilities from a young age. In early 818/1415 he was given the governorship and income of Astarābād and western Khurāsān, and in 819/1416–17 Shāh Rukh appointed him to supervise the dīwān-i…
Date: 2021-07-19

Sarāy Malik Khānum

(427 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
Sarāy Malik Khānum, sometimes Sarāy Mulk, was a descendant of Chinggis Khān (Genghis Khan, d. 626/1229) and the chief wife of Amīr Tīmūr (Tamerlane, d. 807/1405), founder of the Tīmūrid dynasty. She was the daughter of the Chaghatay ruler Qazān Sulṭān Khān (d. 736/1347), and first married Amīr Ḥusayn Qara’unas (d. 771/1370), grandson of the man who took power from her father. When Tīmūr overthrew Amīr Ḥusayn in 771/1370, he married Sarāy Malik, thus gaining prestige and earning the title güregen (son-in-law to the house of Chinggis Khān). Many of Tīmūr’s grandchildren were raised a…
Date: 2021-07-19

Ibrāhīm Sulṭān b. Shāh Rukh

(597 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
Ibrāhīm Sulṭān b. Shāh Rukh (796–838/1394–1435) was a Tīmūrid prince who served as governor of Fars under his father Shāh Rukh (r. 811–50/1409–47), son of the dynasty’s founder Tīmūr (Temür, Tamerlane, r. 771–807/1370–1405). Ibrāhīm Sulṭān was active in military affairs but is better remembered for his cultural patronage. At his birth, on 28 Shawwāl 796/26 August 1394, Ibrāhīm Sulṭān, like many grandsons of Tīmūr, was entrusted to Tīmūr’s wife Ṭūmān Āghā and educated in kingly culture (adab-i pādshāhī) at the central court. Judging from Tīmūr’s own patronage and the care…
Date: 2021-07-19

Mīrāns̲h̲āh b. Tīmūr

(474 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
(vers 768-810/vers 1367-1408), troisième fils de Tīmūr [ q.v.] (Tamerlan), et d’une concubine du nom de Mengliček. Du fait de son mariage avec deux princesses čingizides, il portait le titre de garegen («gendre royal»). En 782/1380-1, il fut nommé gouverneur du Ḵh̲urāsān, peu avant la conquête totale du pays. Il y partagea le pouvoir avec plusieurs généraux de Tīmūr, et passa une grande partie de son temps hors de la province, accompagnant son père dans la Perse occidentale en 786-7/1384-5, au Kḥwārazm et dans la steppe ḳi̊pčaḳ en 790/1388-9 et 792-3/1390-1, et dans la «camp…

S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲

(1,823 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
b. Tīmūr, quatrième fils et successeur de Tīmūr (Tamerlan), né le 14 rabīʿ II 779/20 août 1377 d’une des concubines de Tīmūr, Tag̲h̲āy Tarkān Āg̲h̲ā. En 794/1392, Tīmūr l’envoya à la nouvelle forteresse de S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲iyya, au Nord du Jaxartes, et en 799/1397 le nomma gouverneur du Ḵh̲urāsān, du Sīstān et du Māzandarān. S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ fut marié à deux femmes prestigieuses, Gawhars̲h̲ād bt G̲h̲iyāt̲h̲ al-dīn Tark̲h̲ān et Malikat Āg̲h̲ā, veuve činggizide de son frère aîné ʿUmar S̲h̲ayk̲h̲. En tant que gouverneur du Ḵh̲urāsān, S̲h̲āhruk̲h̲ se trouva en position de force dan…

ʿAbd al-Razzāq Samarqandī

(827 words)

Author(s): Manz, Beatrice Forbes
ʿAbd al-Razzāq Kamāl al-Dīn Samarqandī (816–87/1413–82), author of the Persian-language history Maṭlaʿ-i saʿdayn va majmaʿ-i baḥrayn (Ar. Maṭlaʿ al-saʿdayn wa-majmaʿ al-baḥrayn), was born on 12 Shaʿbān 816/7 November 1413, in Herat. His father, Jalāl al-Dīn Isḥāq, was judge and imām at court and had his four sons educated in the religious sciences. Like his brothers, ʿAbd al-Razzāq had an ijāza (license to transmit traditions) from the ḥadīth scholar Muḥammad al-Jazarī (d. 833/1429–30). In 841/1437–8, he dedicated to the Tīmūrid ruler Shāh Rukh (r. 811–50/1409…
Date: 2021-07-19

Mīrk̲h̲wānd

(540 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, A. | Manz, Beatrice Forbes
, Muḥammad b. K̲h̲wānds̲h̲āh b. Maḥmūd , (836-7 to 903/1433-4 to 1498), Tīmūrid historian under Sultan Ḥusayn Baykara in Harāt, author of the universal history Rawḍat al-ṣafāʾ fī sīrat al-anbiyāʾ wa ’l-mulūk wa ’l-k̲h̲ulafāʾ , written in Persian. He was born in 836-7/1433-4 into a Buk̲h̲āran sayyid family. His father Burhān al-Dīn K̲h̲wānds̲h̲āh spent most of his career in Balk̲h̲, with a sojourn also in Harāt where he was connected with the eminent scholar and S̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām , Bahāʾ al-Dīn ʿUmar D̲j̲ag̲h̲āraʾī Mīrk̲h̲wānd received a comprehensive education and early bec…

Mīrk̲h̲wānd

(566 words)

Author(s): Beveridge, A. | Manz, Beatrice Forbes
, Muḥammad b. Ḵh̲wānds̲h̲āh b. Maḥmūd, historien tīmūride qui vécut sous le règne du sultan Ḥusayn Bayḳarā à Harāt. Il naquit en 836-7/1433-4 dans une famille de sayyids de Buk̲h̲ārā; son père, Burhān al-dīn Ḵh̲wānds̲h̲āh, passa la majeure partie de sa carrière à Balk̲h̲, mais il séjourna aussi à Harāt, où il fut en rapport avec l’éminent savant et s̲h̲ayk̲h̲ al-Islām Bahāʾ al-dīn ʿUmar Ḏj̲ag̲h̲āraʾī. Mīrk̲h̲wānd reçut une large éducation et s’intéressa de bonne heure à l’histoire, mais il ne produisit rien avant de bénéficier du patronage de Mīr ʿAlī S̲h̲īr Nawāʾī [ q.v.], qui lui attr…