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al-Rifāʿī

(1,208 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAli , Abu ’l-ʿAbbas, S̲h̲āfiʿī faḳīh by training and founder of the Rifāʿiyya [ q.v.] dervish order. He was born in Muḥarram 500/September 1106 (or, according to other authorities, in Rad̲j̲ab 512/October-November 1118) at Ḳaryat Ḥasan, a village of the Baṭāʾiḥ or marshlands of lower ʿIrāḳ [see al-baṭīḥa ] between Baṣra and Wāsiṭ, whence the nisba sometimes given to him of al-Baṭāʾiḥī, and he died at Umm ʿUbayda in the same region on 22 D̲j̲umādā I 578/23 October 1182 (see Ibn K̲h̲allikān, ed. ʿAbbās, i, 171-2, tr. de Slane, i, 152-3). The nisba al-Rifāʿī…

Ibn al-Ḥad̲j̲d̲j̲ād̲j̲

(907 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Pellat, Ch.
, Abū ʿAbd Allāh al-ʿḤusayn b. Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. D̲j̲aʿfar b. Muḥammad , a S̲h̲īʿī Arab poet in the time of the Būyids [ q.v.]. Born in Bag̲h̲dād in about 330/941-2, of a family of government officials and secretaries, he completed the traditional studies and was partly trained by Abū Isḥāḳ Ibrāhīm al-Ṣābiʾ (313-84/925-94 [see al-ṣābiʾ ]) who made him take up an administrative career, but he very quickly perceived that his poetic talents could prove more profitable and resigned his post. At first he was connected with the vizier al-Muhallabī [ q.v.] for whom he wrote a panegyric and …

Raws̲h̲aniyya

(1,323 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Bosworth, C.E.
, a mystical and gnostic Islamic sect founded amongst the Afg̲h̲āns of the North-West Frontier region, with centres at e.g. Kāṅīgurām and Tīrāh in Wazīristān, by Bāyazīd b. ʿAbd Allāh Anṣārī of Kāṅīgurām ( ca. 931-80/ ca. 1525-73). He claimed to be, if not actually a Mahdī, at least a hādī or guide towards tawḥīd , the Divine Unity, for his followers. He styled himself pīr-i raws̲h̲an “the divinely-illuminated pīr [ q.v.] “, although his orthodox enemies called him pīr-i tārīkī “the pīr of darkness” and his adherents Tārīkiyān “devotees o…

Mawlawiyya

(7,235 words)

Author(s): Yazıcı, T. | Margoliouth, D.S. | Jong, F. de
, a Ṣūfī order or ṭarīḳa , in Turkish Mewlewiyye, modern Mevlevî, which takes its name from the Mawlānā (“Our Master”), the sobriquet of D̲j̲alal al-Dīn Rūmī [ q.v.]. Although not called by this name, it appears that such a ṭarīḳa was formed already in the Mawlānā’s time, and this view is reinforced by the existence of a group of disciples around the Mawlānā, by his concern for their education and by his appointment of deputies to carry out this task during his absences. However, like many ṭuruḳ (e.g. the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.]), this ṭarīḳa acquired its name at a later stage. There is no…

Mawlānā K̲h̲ūnkār

(176 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, a title of the head of the Mawlawī order of dervishes [see mawlawiyya ]. The second word is the Turkish form of the Persian k̲h̲udāwandigār , the equivalent of mawlā , which according to Aflākī ( Saints des derviches tourneurs , i, 59) was bestowed on D̲j̲alāl al-Dīn by his father (the ¶ derivation from K̲h̲ūn-kār , Persian “blood-shedder”, must depend on popular etymology). Sāmī in his Ḳāmūs al-aʿlām states that the word, besides used for “Sultan”, “King”, is applied to certain saintly personages, in such combinations as pīr k̲h̲ūnkār or mullā k̲h̲ūnkār . The und…

Saʿdīya

(930 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
or Ḏj̲ibāwīya, an order of dervishes named after the founder Saʿd al-Dīn al-d̲j̲ibāwī, i. e. of Ḏj̲ibā, “between the Hawrān and Damascus”. His death-date is variously given as 700 and 736 a. h.; and the accounts which we have of him are clearly fabulous. According to the Ḵh̲ulāṣat al-At̲h̲ar, i. 34, his father was the S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Yūnus al-S̲h̲aibānī, a pious man, whom in his youth he disobeyed, becoming a leader of banditti in the Ḥawrān; owing, however, to his father’s prayers he was favoured with a vision which resulted in his conversion. Th…

Raws̲h̲anīya

(1,443 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Afg̲h̲ān sect founded by Bāyazīd b. ʿAbd Allāh, who took the title Pīr-i Rawg̲h̲an: called by their enemies Tārīkiān. 1. Life of the Founder. Bāyazīd was born at D̲j̲ullindur in the Pand̲j̲āb about 931 (1525), his father’s native place being Kaniguram, an Afg̲h̲ān town, whither his parents returned. When his mother Banin was divorced by ʿAbd Allāh, Bāyazīd became alienated from his father, who disapproved of his seeking the solution of religious difficulties from a poor relation, the ascetic Ismāʿīl; he started e…

Raḥmānīya

(1,061 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Algerian Order ( ṭarīḳa) called after Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Gus̲h̲tulī al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrain, who died 1208 (1793—1794). It is a branch of the Ḵh̲alwatīya and is said to have at one time been called Bakrīya after Muṣṭafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. At Nefta, in Tunisia, and some other places it is called ʿAzzūzīya after Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Life of the Founder. His family belonged to the tribe Ait Smāʿīl, part of the confederation Gas̲h̲tula in the Ḳābilīya Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ura; having studied at his home, and then in Algiers, he mad…

Naḳs̲h̲band

(618 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Muḥammad b. Muḥammad Bahāʾ al-Dīn al-Buk̲h̲ārī (717—791 = 1317—1389), founder of the Naḳs̲h̲bandī Order. His name, which signifies “painter” is interpreted as “drawing incomparable pictures of the Divine Science” (J. P. Brown, The Darvishes, 2nd ed., p. 142) or more mystically as “holding the form of real perfection in the heart” ( Miftāḥ al-Maʿīya quoted by Ahlwardt, Berlin Catalogue, N°. 2188). The title al-S̲h̲āh which is given him in a dirge cited in the Ras̲h̲aḥāt means “spiritual leader”. The nisba al-Uwaisī implies that his system resembled that of Uwais al-Ḳaranī. His Acta we…

al-Ḥarīrī

(1,378 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Pellat, Ch.
(sometimes Ibn al-Ḥarīrī in Yāḳūt), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. ʿUt̲h̲mān b. al-Ḥarīrī al-Baṣrī , Arabic poet and philologist known principally for his Maḳāmāt . Born in 446/1054, probably to a landed family living at al-Mas̲h̲ān, near Baṣra, where he spent his childhood, he commenced his studies at Baṣra; his biographers agree that he studied under al-Faḍl b. Muḥammad al-Ḳaṣabānī, but the latter is said to have died in 444/1052 (see Yāḳūt, Udabāʾ , xvi, 218; al-Suyūṭī, Bug̲h̲ya , 373; al-Ṣafadī, Nakt , 227), so that there is a discrepancy …

al-Bāk̲h̲arzī

(300 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, abu ’l-ḥasan (or abu ’l-ḳāsim ) ʿalī b. ḥasan b. ʿalī b. abi ’l-ṭayyib , Arab poet and anthologist, a native of Bāk̲h̲arz. After receiving a good education in his father’s house, he studied in particular S̲h̲āfiʿī fiḳh and, at Nīsābūr, attended the lectures of al-D̲j̲uwaynī (ʿAbd Allāh b. Yūsuf [ q.v.], where he made the acquaintance of al-Kundurī [ q.v.]; the latter, when he became wazīr , took him to Bag̲h̲dād as a secretary; previously, he had for some time been an official at Baṣra. Subsequently, he was admitted to the chancellery, an…

Pand̲j̲ Pīr

(868 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S. | Burton-Page, J.
, Pačpiriyā , followers of the Five Saints, Urdu pānč pīr , especially in northern and eastern India, whose myths and legends (there is no real historicity or hagiology about them) are attached to a primitive form of shrine worship with as many Hindū as Muslim adherents (Kipling in Kim , ch. 4, speaks of the “wayside shrines—sometimes Hindu, sometimes Mussulman—which the low caste of both creeds share with beautiful impartiality”. For “caste” among the lower grades of Muslim society see hind. ii, Ethnography). They have no formal organisation, and belong to the general north…

Raḥmāniyya

(1,204 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Algerian Ṣūfī order ( ṭarīḳa ) called after Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Gas̲h̲tulī al-D̲j̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrayn, who died in 1208/1793-4. It is a branch of the K̲h̲alwatiyya [ q.v.] and is said to have at one time been called Bakriyya after Muṣṭafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. At Nafṭa [ q.v.], in Tunisia, and some other places it is called ʿAzzūziyya after Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Life of the founder. His family belonged to the tribe Ayt Smāʿīl, part of the Gas̲h̲tula confederation in the Ḳābiliyya D̲j̲urd̲j̲ura; having studied at his home, and th…

S̲h̲amsīya

(311 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, order of derwishes called after S̲h̲ams al-Dīn Abu ’l-T̲h̲anāʾ Aḥmad b. Abi ’l-Barakāt Muḥammad Sīwāsī or Sīwāsī-zāde, also called Ḳara S̲h̲ams al-Dīn and S̲h̲amsī (d. 1009 = 1600—1601). He is mentioned by the historians Naʿīmā (Constantinople 1281, i. 372) and Pečewī (Constantinople 1283, ii. 290) among the saints of the reign of Muḥammad III, and they state (probably on the authority of this sovereign, whose letter is cited by von Hammer, Geschichte der osmanischen Dichtkunst, iii. 286) that he fought at the taking of Erlau (1005 = 1596). He was the author of numer…

Ḥarīrī

(694 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(born 446, died 6 Red̲j̲eb 516), Abū Muḥammad al-Ḳāsim b. ʿAlī b. Muḥammad b. al-Ḥarīrī, grammarian and elegant writer, was born and brought up at Mas̲h̲ān near Baṣra; he also studied at Baṣra, though the name of his teacher seems wrongly given by the authorities as al-Faḍl b. Muḥammad al-Ḳaṣabānī, since this personage died 444. At Baṣra he held the office of ṣāḥib al-k̲h̲abar, i. e. head of the intelligence department (cf. Ṭabarī iii. 1260, 13) to the court; and this office remained with his descendants till the time of ʿImād al-Dīn Iṣfahānī, who visited B…

K̲h̲aṭṭābīya

(647 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, name of a sect reckoned among the S̲h̲īʿite extremists ( g̲h̲ulāt), called after Abu ’l-Ḵh̲aṭṭab Muḥammad b. Abī Zainab al-Asadī al-Ad̲j̲daʿ, who is said to have asserted the immanence ( ḥulūl) of the deity in the Imām Ḏj̲aʿfar al-Ṣādiḳ (83—148 = 702—765) and afterwards in himself. He obtained a following in al-Kūfa, where he was attacked by ʿĪsā b. Mūsā, who was governor for some years till 147 = 764/765; he armed his followers with stones, reeds and knives, assuring them that these would prevail against the enemy’s swords…

Ḳādirīya

(3,439 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [q. v.]. 1. Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (ob. 561 = 1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa) of Ḥanbalite Law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb, v. 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572 (1176-7). Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲dād in 656 (1258),…

Arabia

(8,766 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S. | Kratschkowsky, Ign.
C. Arabia under Islām. Both internal and external causes have since the last date (1876) worked changes in the peninsula, the geography of which has been markedly advanced by a number of intrepid explorers, especially St. John Philby, R. E. Cheeseman, Bertram Thomas, D. Van der Meulen and H. Von Wissmann. The regions traversed by the last three of these, the “Empty Quarter” and the independent sulṭānates of Ḥaḍramawt, have indeed been little affected; though even in the latter the motor-car is showi…

Tid̲j̲ānīya

(1,352 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(the forms Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī, Tid̲j̲īnī occur also), order founded by Abu ’l-ʿAbbās Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. al-Muk̲h̲tār b. Sālim al-Tid̲j̲d̲j̲ānī (1150—1230 = 1737—1815). 1. Life of the Founder. This person was born at ʿAin Māḍī, a village 72 kil. W. of Lag̲h̲uat, 28 E. of Tahmut. His family were the Awlād Sīdī S̲h̲aik̲h̲ Muḥammad, and his parents both died of plague in 1166 (1753). After pursuing his studies at his native place, he went to Fez in 1171 (1758) to continue them, thence to Abyad, where he stayed five years, t…

Abū Ḥaiyān

(973 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
ʿAlī b. Muḥammed b. al-ʿAbbās al-Tawḥīdī (so called either after an ancestor who sold a sort of date called tawḥīd, ¶ or in the sense ,upholder of pure monotheismʿ), jurist, philosopher, Ṣūfī, and compiler of miscellanies, lived in the fourth (10th) century. Little was preserved of his biography, but from documents quoted by Yāḳūt it appears that he was alive in Rad̲j̲ab 400 (Feb. 1010), and that he died at the age of more than eighty. His home was placed by different authorities at Nīs̲h̲āpūr, S̲h̲īrāz, or Wā siṭ. Much of his life wa…
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