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(1,634 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Abū ʿUbāda al-Walīd b. ʿUbaid, Arabic poet and anthologist of the third century (204—284 approximately). His nisba signifies member of the Buḥtur clan of the tribe Ṭaiʾ, whose glories he frequently celebrates. His birthplace was Manbid̲j̲ (or, according to one account a village near Manbid̲j̲ called Zardafna), ¶ and of Manbid̲j̲ he often speaks as his home; here he ultimately acquired property, which seems to have been inherited by his son T̲h̲ābit, who was living there in Iṣṭak̲h̲rī’s trnre. The woman who forms the subject of his erotic pr…

Dasūḳī or Dusūḳī

(571 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Ibrāhīm b. Abi ’l-Mad̲j̲d ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz (or ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd) (633—676 = 1235-1236—1277-1278), native of Dusūḳ, a village of Lower Egypt in the G̲h̲arbīya District; founder of the Dusūḳī Order. According to the commentator on his Ḥizb (Ḥasan S̲h̲amma, Masarrat al-Ainain bi-S̲h̲arḥ Ḥizb Abi ’l-ʿAinain, Cairo n.d.), his father came from a village Mrḳs (Marcus?) on the opposite bank of the Nile, and was himself ¶ a walī; his mother was daughter of another walī Abu ’l-Fatḥ al-Wāsiṭī. He is said to have studied S̲h̲āfiʿī jurisprudence before he followed the Ṣūfīs, to hav…


(952 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, religious sect or order called after Muḥammad b. Muḥammad b. ʿAbd Allāh, called Nūrbak̲h̲s̲h̲ (795—869 a. h.). 1. Life of the founder. Of this person there is a detailed biography in the work Mad̲j̲ālis al-Muʾminīn of Nūr Allāh al-S̲h̲ustarī (Bodleian MS., Ous. 366; see also Brit. Mus. Catalogue of Persian MSS.), chiefly based on a work ( tad̲h̲kira) by Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Samarḳandī. His father was born in Ḳaṭīf, and his grandfather in al-Ḥass, whence in some g̲h̲azals he styles himself Laḥsawī. His father migrated to Ḳāʾin in Ḳuhistān, where his son was born. The …


(469 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, branch of the S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī Order, has its headquarters at Ḳenād̲j̲iā; lists of the heads are given by Rinn, loc. cit., Dupont and Coppolani, Confréries, p. 498, and Cour, loc. cit.; ¶ in the second work a specimen is given of the diploma of muḳaddam conferred by the head of the order, with seal. Their practice is said to differ from those of the other S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilīs only in details; their ordinary d̲h̲ikr is reproduced by Rinn, loc. cit., p. 411, and consists in the repetition of certain formulae, a hundred, others a thousand times. Their speciality is the guiding and p…


(261 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Abū ʿAlī al-Faḍl b. Ḏj̲aʿfar b. al-Faḍl b. Yūsuf, poet and letter-writer of the first half of the third century; although Ibn ¶ Maiyāda rated him as a poet above Buḥturī, and his prose style was also greatly admired, he is at present known only by occasional citations and scanty references. From these we learn that his early life was spent at Kūfa, that he belonged to the circle of Abu ’l-ʿAinā and Saʿīd b. Ḥumaid, and that he was patronized by ʿUbaid Allāh b. Yaḥyā, when the latter was at the height of his power (2…


(4,799 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Islāmic community founded by Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Wahhāb (1115-1201 = 1703-1787). This name was given to the community by its opponents in the founder’s lifetime, and is used by Europeans; it is not used by its members in Arabia, who call themselves Muwaḥḥidūn “unitarians” and their system ( ṭarīḳa) “Muḥammadan”; they regard themselves as Sunnīs, following the school of Ibn Ḥanbal, as interpreted by Ibn Taimīya, who attacked the cult of saints in many of his writings, especially in a Risāla condemning the visitation of tombs (in his Rasāʾil, Cairo 1323). § 1. Life of the Founder. He w…


(1,078 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī Abu ’l-ʿAbbās, founder of the Rifāʿī ( ṭarīḳa, died 22nd Ḏj̲umādā I, 578 (Sept. 23, 1183) at Umm ʿAbīda, in the district of Wāsiṭ. The date of his birth is given by some authorities as Muḥarram 500 (Sept. 1106), but others say Rad̲j̲ab 512 (Oct.—Nov. 1118), at Ḳaryat Ḥasan, a village in the district of Baṣra. These places being in the region called al-Baṭāʾiḥ [q. v.], he has the further nisba al-Baṭāʾiḥī; al-Rifāʿī is usually explained as referring to an ancestor Rifāʿa, but by some is supposed to be a tribal name. This ancestor Rifāʿa is said to have …


(1,216 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, sect, called after Abū ʿAbdallāh Muḥammad b. Karrām (or Karām or Kirām; see Mīzān al-Iʿtidāl, iii. 127, and for further ancestors Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, Kāmil, vii. 149). Of this person, who ¶ is called al-Sid̲j̲istānī, a fairly full biography is given by al-Samʿānī in the Ansāb, 476b, 477a. According to this, he was of the Banū Nizār, was born in a village of Zarand̲j̲, was brought up in Sid̲j̲istān, and afterwards went to Ḵh̲orāsān, where he attended the courses of Aḥmad b. Ḥarb, the Ascetic (d. 234); at Balk̲h̲ he heard Ibrāhīm b. Yūsuf al-Māk…


(2,333 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, or S̲h̲ād̲h̲alīya, pronounced in Africa S̲h̲ādulīya, Ṣūfī sect called after Abu ’l-Ḥasan ʿAlī b. ʿAbd Allāh al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī, whose title is variously given as Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn and Taḳī al-Dīn (593-656 a.h.). For the life of this personage see the art. al-s̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī. His system. Al-S̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī does not appear to have composed any large work, but many sayiūgs, spells and an ode are ascribed to him, and since some of the first are recorded in the work of his ¶ disciple’s disciple, Tād̲j̲ al-Dīn al-Iskandarī, composed in 694, they may be to some extent genuine (see the art. al-s̲h̲ād̲h̲ilī).…


(753 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Indian Order or Caste of faḳīrs, founded according to some by one Abū Isḥāḳ, descended in the ninth generation from ʿAlī, who migrating from Asia Minor, settled at Čis̲h̲t, a village of Ḵh̲urāsān, or, in another account, settled in Syria and was buried at Acre; according to others by Banda Nawāz, who is buried at Kalbarga; according to others by Ḵh̲wād̲j̲ā Aḥmad Abdāl of Čis̲h̲t (d. 355 = 965—966) brought to India by Muʿīn al-Dīn Čis̲h̲tī, a native of Sid̲j̲z, who migrated thither in the time of Muʿizz al-Dīn b. Sām (589 = 1193) and settled in Ajmeer (Sir D. Ibbetson, Panjab Castes, 1916, p. 22…


(1,959 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(Turkish pronunciation Mewlewīya), Order of Derwishes called by Europeans Dancing or Whirling Derwishes. 1. Origin of the Order. Its name is derived from mawlānā (“our master”), a title given par excellence to Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn al-Rūmī (e. g. by the Turkish writers Saʿd al-Dīn and Pečewī, cited below), of which the Persian equivalent was according to the Manāḳib al-ʿĀrifīn (translated by Huart as Les Saints des Derviches Tourneurs, Paris 1918—1922) bestowed on Ḏj̲alāl al-Dīn [q. v.] by his father, with whom this hagiography commences. According to the same author…


(313 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, al-Manṣūrī al-Ḵh̲aṭaʾī, (about 645—725), Mamlūk minister and historian. Ḳalāūn, who purchased and manumitted him, promoted him to the governorship of Kerak, whence he was dismissed by the Sulṭān Ḵh̲alīl; on the accession of Nāṣir in 693 he was made chief of the dīwān al-ins̲h̲ā with the title dawādārkabīr, which he retained till 704. In 703 he was employed to repair the ravages caused by the earthquake in Alexandria. He was cashiered in 704 by the viceroy Sallār in consequence of a charge of insolence brought by one of the latter’s secreta…


(421 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, Ṣūfī order included in the list of 161 orders furnished to S. Anderson by the Imperial Board of Derwīs̲h̲es at Constantinople ( Moslem World, 1922, p. 56). It is called mad̲h̲hab-i s̲h̲uṭṭār (or s̲h̲aṭṭār) in the Persian work cited below; since a person named S̲h̲aṭṭār is not mentioned in the chief biographical dictionaries of saints, the former vocalization may be correct, as the plural of s̲h̲āṭir, according to Redhouse “a mystic who has broken with the world”, though this sense is not recognized by Sami Pas̲h̲a. The order is mentioned by Abu ’l-Faḍl ( Āīn-i Akbarī, transl. Jarrett, ii…

Zain al-Dīn

(250 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
Abū Bakr Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Ḵh̲awāfī, founder of an order called after him Zainīya, which traced itself to Ḏj̲unaid, was born in 757 (1356) at Ḵh̲awāf (between Bus̲h̲and̲j̲ and Zuzan) in Ḵh̲urāsān, and was buried in 838 (1435) at the village Mālīn (two parasangs from Herāt), whence his remains were transferred to Darwīs̲h̲ābād, and thence to the ʿĪdgāh of Herāt, where a mosque was built over them. He obtained authorization ( id̲j̲āza) in Egypt ¶ from Nūr al-Dīn ʿAbd al-Raḥmān al-Miṣrī ( Nafaḥāt al-Uns, N°. 505), and returned to Central Asia, but visited Egypt again, whenc…


(640 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
(358—398) Abu ’l-Faḍl Aḥmad b. al-Ḥusain b. Yaḥyā b. Saʿīd b. Bis̲h̲r, called Badiʿ al-Zamān, poet and elegant writer. He studied at his native place Hamad̲h̲ān with the grammarian Aḥmad b. Fāris and others, and in 380 went to Raiy, where he for a time secured the favour of the Ṣāḥib b. ʿAbbād, thence to Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān where he found a patron in Abū Saʿīd Muḥammad b. Manṣūr. In 382 he went to Nīsābūr, which he reached destitute, having been attacked by brigands on the way; he was less warmly received than he had hoped by Abū Bakr Ḵh̲wārizmī, the leading adīb of the time, and was presently invited…


(3,408 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Order ( ṭarīḳa ) of dervishes called after ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [ q.v.]. 1.—Origin. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (d. 561/1166) was the principal of a school ( madrasa ) of Ḥanbalī law and a ribāṭ in Bag̲h̲dād. His sermons (collected in al-Fatḥ al-Rabbānī ) were delivered sometimes in the one, sometimes in the other; both were notable institutions in the time of Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, and Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād al-Arīb , v, 274) records a bequest of books made to the former by a man who died in 572/1176-7. Both appear to have come to an end at the sack of Bag̲h̲…


(1,244 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, Aḥmad b. ʿAlī, Abū l-ʿAbbās, faḳīh s̲h̲āfiʿite de formation, fondateur de l’ordre de derviches Rifāʿiyya [ q.v.]. Il naquit en muḥarram 500/septembre 1106 (selon d’autres sources en rad̲j̲ab 512/octobre-novembre 1118) à Ḳaryat Ḥasan, un village des Baṭāʿiḥ, région des marécages du bas ʿIrāḳ [voir al-Baṭīḥa] entre Baṣra et Wāsiṭ — de là la nisba d’al-Baṭaʾiḥī qui lui est parfois donnée — et mourut à Umm ʿUbayda, dans la même région, le 22 d̲j̲umādā I 578/23 octobre 1182 (voir Ibn Ḵh̲allikān. éd. ʿAbbās, I, 171-2, trad. de Slane, I, 152-3). La nisba d’al-Rifāʿi est ordinairement expli…


(1,231 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, confrérie religieuse ( ṭariḳa) algérienne, qui doit son nom à Muḥammad b. ʿAbd al-Rahmān al-Gas̲h̲tulī al-Ḏj̲urd̲j̲urī al-Azharī Abū Ḳabrayn, (m. 1208/1793-4). C’est une branche des Ḵh̲alwatiyya et elle fut, dit-on, appelée pendant quelque temps Bakriyya d’après Muṣtafā al-Bakrī al-S̲h̲āmī. A Nafṭa [ q.v.], en Tunisie, et dans quelques autres endroits, on l’appelle ʿAzzūziyya, du nom de Muṣṭafā b. Muḥammad b. ʿAzzūz. Vie du fondateur. Sa famille appartenait à la tribu des Ayt Smāʿīl, membre de la confédération des Gas̲h̲tula dans la Kabylie du Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ura;…

Mawlānā K̲h̲ūnkār

(161 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D.S.
, titre du supérieur de l’ordre de derviches mawlawis [voir Mawlawiyya]. Le second mot est la forme turque du mot persan k̲h̲udāwandigar, équivalent de mawlā, qui, d’après Aflākī ( Saints des derviches tourneurs, I, 59), fut donné à Ḏj̲alāl al-dīn Rūmī [ q.v.] par son père (une etymologie populaire le fait venir du persan k̲h̲ūn-kār «verseur de sang»). Sāmī, dans son Ḳāmūs al-aʿlām, dit que ce mot, employé pour désigner un «sultan», un «roi», est appliqué aussi à certains saints personnages, dans des combinaisons telles que pīr k̲h̲ūnkār ou mullā k̲h̲ūnkār. Le sens premier de ce titr…


(3,416 words)

Author(s): Margoliouth, D. S.
, confrérie religieuse ( ṭarīḳa), ainsi nommée d’après ʿAbd al-Ḳādir al-Ḏj̲īlānī [ q.v.] 1. — Origine. ʿAbd al-Ḳādir (m. 561/1166) était le directeur d’une école ( madrasa) hanbalite et d’un ribāṭ à Bag̲h̲dād. Ses prédications (recueillies dans al-Fatḥ al-rabbānī) étaient faites tantôt dans la première, tantôt dans le second; c’étaient là deux établissements de premier ordre à l’époque d’Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, et Yāḳūt ( Irs̲h̲ād, V, 274) cite un legs de livres fait à cette école par un homme qui mourut en 572/1176-7. Les deux établissements paraissent avoir été v…
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