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(1,063 words)

Author(s): Marković, Željko
1. Lamaism denotes the version of → Buddhism practiced in → Tibet. Nowadays the concept refers especially to the theocratic system of Tibet before 1959 (→ Theocracy). (The prevailing Tibetan religion is now usually called ‘Tibetan Buddhism.’) ‘Lamaism’ comes from the word Lama (religious teacher), a title for ranking monks. History 2. The first attempts to convert the Tibetans to Buddhism were made through Indian → Tantra Buddhism, beginning in 640 CE. Only through the efforts of Indian missionary Padmasambhava, however, did Buddhism begin to ga…