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(1,166 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, book of divination. In the Muslim East (especially in Iranian and Turkish countries), in order to know if not the future, at least the signs or circumstances that are auspicious for some decision, recourse is still sometimes made to certain procedures (cf. Massé, Croyances , ch. XI: divination), among others to two kinds of books: 1. collections of poems ( dīwān of Ḥāfiẓ); 2. special works ( fāl-nāma). Consulting the dīwān, an act within the reach of everyone, consists in opening the book at random and interpreting the text which first strikes the eye (for details, see Massé, op. cit., 244-5…


(843 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Iranian personal name (arabicised form Buzurd̲j̲mihr) which according to a tradition transmitted by Iranian and Arab writers, was given to a man endowed with every ability and virtue who was the minister of Ḵh̲usraw I Anūs̲h̲arawān ¶ (6th century A.D.). The earliest authorities who were acquainted with the Pahlawī Ḵh̲vad̲h̲āynāmāg̲h̲ (“Book of Sovereigns”), written towards the end of the Sāsānid period (7th century), the source of the oldest accounts of pre-Islamic Iranian history penned by Arab writers (al-Ṭabarī, Ibn Ḳ…


(292 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, a village in Afg̲h̲ānistān (orchards, particularly of apricots) in the region of G̲h̲ūr [ q.v.] on the Tagao Gunbaz, tributary on the left bank of the Harī Rūd, above Čis̲h̲t; an hour’s march away, by the confluence of the tributary and the main stream, stands a cylindrical minaret of harmonious proportions, with an octagonal base which carries three superposed stages of truncated conical form, with an interior staircase (over 180 steps); the height of This minaret (about 60 m.) puts it between the Ḳuṭb mīnār of Dihlī [ q.v.] and the minaret of Buk̲h̲ārā [ q.v.]. One of the inscriptions …


(1,297 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Fak̲h̲r al-Dīn Ibrāhīm ʿIrāḳī Hamadānī , eminent Iranian poet and mystic. In spite of its lack of precision, the best source of information on this author, who gives very few autobiographical details in his own works, is an anonymous muḳaddima (introduction), composed in the manner and style of ʿIrāḳī’s own period (the end of the 7th/13th century) or the beginning of the following period. D̲j̲āmī ( Nafaḥāt al-uns ) and Mir K̲h̲wānd ( Ḥabīb al-siyar ) have obtained their information on ʿIrāḳī from this introduction. According to Ḥamd Allāh Mustawfī Kazwini, who wrote his Tārīk̲h̲-i guzīd…

Riḍā Ḳulī K̲h̲ān

(1,032 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
b. muḥammad hādī b. ismāʿīl kamāl , Persian scholar and man of letters, “l’un des hommes les plus spirituels et les plus aimables que j’aie rencontrés dans aucune partie du monde” (Gobineau). A descendant of the poet Kamāl K̲h̲ud̲j̲andī [ q.v.], the grandfather of Riḍā Ḳulī, chief of the notables of Čarda Kilāta (district of Dāmg̲h̲ān), was put to death by the partisans of Karīm K̲h̲ān Zand against whom he supported the Ḳād̲j̲ārs (cf. Relation de l’ambassade au Kharezm , tr. Schefer, 203). His father became one of the dignitaries of the court of the Ḳ…

Abu ’l-Futūḥ al-Rāzī

(241 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
; Persian commentator of the Ḳurʾān. He lived between 480/1087 and 525/1131, fixed by conjecture. Among his disciples are the famous S̲h̲iʾte theologians Ibn S̲h̲ahrāsūb and Ibn Bābūya [ q.v.], who describes him as a scholar, preacher, commentator of the Ḳurʾān and a pious man. According to al-S̲h̲us̲h̲tarī ( Mad̲j̲ālis al-Muʾminīn ) he was a contemporary of al-Zamak̲h̲s̲h̲arī, whom he quoted as his master—which would explain the Muʿtazilism of his commentary. Muḥ. Ḳazwīnī has proved that his commentary could not date from …

ʿImād al-Dīn

(897 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
Muḥammad b. Muḥammad al-Kātib al-Iṣfahānī , famous stylist and historian, born at Iṣfahān in 519/1125 of a distinguished family to which belonged also the famous kātib al-ʿAzīz, whose biography is given in Ibn K̲h̲allikān. Wafayāt , ed. Wüstenfeld no. 77 (cf., concerning him, Houtsma. Recueil , ii, preface, XIX ff.). He spent his youth in his native town and at Ḳas̲h̲ān, but studied in Bag̲h̲dād, in particular fiḳh , and made a journey to Mosul and other places. When the Sald̲j̲ūḳid sultan Muḥammad II laid siege unsuccessfully to Bag̲h̲dād …

Abū Ṭāhir Ṭarsūsī

(146 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
( Ṭarṭūsī , Ṭūsī ) Muḥammad b. Ḥasan b. ʿAlī b. Mūsā , a person otherwise unknown, said to be the author of several novels in prose, prolix in style and of great length, a confused mixture of Arab and Persian legendary traditions, written in Persian and afterwards translated into Turkish. These include Ḳahramān-nāma (about Ḳahramān, a hero from the epoch of Hūs̲h̲ang, semi-mythical king of Īrān), Ḳirān-i Ḥabas̲h̲ī (the story of a hero from the time of the Kayānid king Kay Ḳubād), Dārāb-nāma (history of Darius and Alexander). (H. Massé) Bibliography Firdawsī, Livre des des rois, ed. and tra…

Abu ’l-Maʿālī

(231 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
Muḥammad b. ʿUbayd Allāh , Persian writer. His sixth ancestor was Ḥusayn al-Aṣg̲h̲ar, traditionist and son of the Imām Zayn al-ʿĀbidīn. His family lived for a long time in Balk̲h̲. He was a contemporary of Nāṣir-i Ḵh̲usraw, whom he may have known and about whom he gives us the earliest information available. ¶ From two passages of his only work Ch. Schefer assumed that he was at the court of the G̲h̲aznawid Sultan Masʿūd III when he composed his Bayān al-Adyān , dated 485/1092, the earliest known work on religions in the Persian language. The first two …


(882 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
(Pahlavi, Frēdun; ancient Iranian, Thraētaona), the son of Abtiyān or Abtīn, one of the early kings of Īrān. The most complete text on the subject is the account of his reign by Firdawsī, in verse; some of the sources for it will be found in pre-Islamic texts. §§ 130-8 of the Yasht s of the Avesta reveal the names of the first kings of Īrān in their original order (the first being Yima [see d̲j̲ams̲h̲īd ]), whose conqueror and murderer, Azhī-Dahāka, was overthrown in his turn and put to death by Thraētaona; the latter was rewarded by a share of the aureole of glory ( hvareno ) …


(388 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
This poetical name ( tak̲h̲alluṣ ) is probably that of two poets born at Ṭūs (Ḵh̲urāsān): abū naṣr aḥmad b. manṣūr al-ṭūsī and his son ʿali b. aḥmad . According to the extremely doubtful statement of Dawlats̲h̲āh, the father was the pupil of Firdūsī (born ca. 320-2/932-4), while the epic composed by ʿAlī b. Aḥmad is precisely dated 458/1066; H. Ethé concludes from this that it is impossible to attribute to the same author the works placed under the name of Asadī. Thus Abū Naṣr, about whom it is only known that he died during the rule of Masʿūd al-G̲h̲aznawī. becomes the author of the Munāẓarāt


(227 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Ḥamīd al-Dīn Abū Bakr ʿUmar b. Maḥmūd , born in Balk̲h̲, died in 559/1164, a ḳāḍī who in 551/1156 began to compile his collection of twenty-three Ḥamīdian sessions (or scenes) ( maḳāmāt-i Ḥamīdī ) to serve as a pendant in the Persian language to the celebrated Arabic Maḳāmāt of al-Hamad̲h̲ānī and al-Ḥarīrī, as he states in his preface. Like these authors, he subordinated matter to form, above all endeavouring in his writings to show himself as a consummate stylist. For the most part, his maḳāmāt describe some episode in his adventures or travels; others d…


(538 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, mythical king of Iran who appears in several of the Yas̲h̲t of the Avesta; the first lawful king and the protégé of the gods, he reigned over the seven climes of the world, over the demons and the sorcerers; according to these texts, he resided in the countries situated to the south of the Caspian Sea. His place in the series of the mythical kings (Pīs̲h̲dādiyān) is vague: sometimes he is the contemporary of Ṭahmūrat̲h̲ [ q.v.], sometimes his successor; sometimes Gayumard comes before both of them. The Pahlavi texts add little to the Avestan texts. The Arabic texts, wh…


(106 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Arabic form of the surname of Chosroës I (al-Ṭabarī, I, 862) [see kisrā], in Pahlawi anos̲h̲ag̲h̲-ruvān , in Pazand anos̲h̲-ruān “possessed of an immortal soul”, then in Persian Nūs̲h̲īravān (Nūs̲h̲īrvān), which is popularly explained as nūs̲h̲īn-ravān “possessed of sweet soul” ( Burhān-i Ḳāṭiʿ ). Several persons in Islam bore this name (Zambaur mentions four), particularly a son of Manūčihr and of a daughter of Maḥmūd al-G̲h̲aznawī, who was amīr of Ḏj̲urd̲j̲ān from 420/1029 to 434/1042 (Ibn al-At̲h̲īr, IX, 262), and Anūs̲h̲arwān b. Ḵh̲āli…


(158 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, s̲h̲ams al-dīn muḥammad , Persian poet, born in Tabrīz, died in 779 or in 784/1382-3; he was one of the panegyrists of the prince Uways [ q.v.] and is chiefly known for his poem Mihr u Mus̲h̲tarī , at the end of which he gives the date of its completion (10 S̲h̲awwāl 778/1377); this poem consists of 5,120 distichs and was later translated into Turkish. In the words of Ethé ( Gr. I. Phil.), it is "the story of a love, free from every frailty and pure from every sensual lust, between Mihr, the son of S̲h̲ābūrs̲h̲āh, and the comely stripling Mus̲h̲tarī". (H. Massé) Bibliography Von Hammer. Gesch. d. sch…


(1,113 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Fakhr al-Dīn Asʿad , author of the first known courtly romance in Persian: Wīs and Rāmīn . In the opinion of Z. Safa (ii, 361) his achievement is to have introduced a literary genre which is now represented by a series of works, several of which are worthy of note. What is known of his life is limited to the little that he reveals in his poem. The accounts given by his biographers are negligible but agree in attributing to him the authorship of the poem (with the exception of Dawlat S̲h̲āh, who erroneously att…

Niẓāmī ʿArūḍī Samarḳandī

(805 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Aḥmad b. ʿUmar b. ʿAlī , took the tak̲h̲alluṣ of Niẓāmī and the honorific Nad̲j̲m al-Dīn (or Niẓām al-Dīn); he was usually called ʿArūḍī (the “prosodist”) to distinguish him from other Niẓāmīs (particularly the great Niẓāmī of Gand̲j̲a [ q.v.], cf. the anecdote quoted by E.G. Browne, Lit . hist . ofPers., ii, 339). According to Browne, Niẓāmī is one of the most interesting and remarkable Persian writers of prose: “one of those who throw most light on the intimate life of Persian and Central Asian Courts in the twelfth century of our era”. He was a court poet who served faithfully the G̲h̲ūrid [ q.…

Ibn al-Faḳīh

(1,186 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, Iranian author of a geography written in Arabic, who lived in the 3rd/9th century. Nothing is known of his life and only one of his works survives, in an abridged form. De Goeje introduced his edition of this work with an authoritative preface in which he reproduced the information, of varying reliability, which Ibn al-Nadīm and the geographer al-Muḳaddasī provide on Ibn al-Faḳīh. According to the Fihrist of the former (154), “he produced a Kitāb al-Buldān of a thousand folios, a compilation from various works, in particular that of al-D̲j̲ayhānī…


(1,376 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
(Pahlawī: čūbikān ; other forms: čūygān (attested in Ibn Yamīn); čūlgān (cf. čūl , in Vullers, Lexicon persico-latinum ; compare Arabic sawlad̲j̲an ); Greek: τξυκάνιον, French: chicane ), stick used in polo ( bolo : Tibetan‘ ball ’, introduced into England around 1871); used in a wider sense for the game itself, ( gūy-u ) čawgān bāzī , "game of (ball and) čawgān "; also used for any stick with the end bent back, particularly those for beating drums. The čawgān is not the same as the mall ( malleum ), which is a hardwood sledge-hammer. According to Quatremère ( Mamluks , i, 123), the sawlad̲j̲ān


(478 words)

Author(s): Massé, H.
, the tak̲h̲alluṣ of several Indian poets. The Riyāḍ al-wifāḳ of D̲h̲u ’l-Fiḳār ʿAlī, biographies of Indian poets who wrote in Persian, and the Tad̲h̲kira of Yūsuf ʿAlī K̲h̲ān (analysed by Sprenger, A catalogue of the Arabic, Persian and Hindustan mssof the King of Oudh , i, 168, 280) mention five of them. The first, a native of Kas̲h̲mīr, lived in Dihlī in the reign of Muḥammad S̲h̲āh (1719-48): his g̲h̲azal s were sung by the dancing-girls.—The most celebrated, however, was Saʿādat Yār K̲h̲ān of Dihlī. His father, Ṭahmāsp Beg K̲h̲ān Tūrānī,…
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