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(760 words)

Author(s): Matras, Yaron
Lekoudesch (also Lechoudesch, Lottegorsich, Lothekolisch, etc.) is the name given by users to a special vocabulary of mainly Hebrew origin that was used as a means of in-group and secret communication among Jewish traders in rural areas in Germany and neighboring countries and regions (the Netherlands, Alsace and Lorraine, Switzerland). The most frequent use of Lekoudesch was in the context of the cattle trade, at cattle markets and among butchers. The original group of users included Jewish mer…


(567 words)

Author(s): Matras, Yaron
Jenisch (Yenish) is a style of speech that is characterized by the insertion of a special vocabulary into local and regional dialects of German. This vocabulary is known only to members of the Jenisch community, and is used to mark ethnic identity as well as to prevent outsiders from understanding key elements of a private conversation. The Jenisch lexicon covers basic, everyday terms and typically includes up to five or six hundred lexical roots. Each Jenisch community has its own in-group voca…