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(2,385 words)

Author(s): Mehlhausen, Joachim
1. Term The word “synod” (Gk. synodos, “on the way together”) was common already in classical Greek. In the apocryphal NT it occurs in Prot. Jas. 15.1 and is parallel to “synagogue.” As a term originally with the same meaning as “councils,” it has gained currency since the Reformation. It refers to church bodies that meet relatively regularly and that, through duly authorized members, advise the church on matters of faith, order, and government. In many church constitutions today, synods are collegial authorities by whic…

Old Prussian Union

(151 words)

Author(s): Mehlhausen, Joachim
[German Version] After the end of church rule by sovereign princes, the Evangelical Regional Church of the older Prussian provinces became the Evangelical Church of the Old Prussian Union. It existed from 1922 to 1953. The term “Old Prussian” expressed the fact that the territories added to Prussia after 1864/1866 (Schleswig-Holstein, Hanover, Electoral Hesse, Nassau, Frankfurt am Main) had not been included in the Prussian Union. Old Prussian church provinces were: Prussia (from 1877: East and We…

Bauer, Bruno

(1,119 words)

Author(s): Mehlhausen, Joachim
[German Version] (Sep 6, 1809, Eisenberg, Thüringen – Apr 13, 1882, Rixdorf, near Berlin). I. Life – II. Work – III. Influence I. Life The son of a porcelain painter, Bauer studied philosophy and theology in Berlin. He was one of the most talented students of G.W.F. Hegel, who recommended him in 1829 for the Prussian prize in philosophy for his work De pulchri principiis (D. Moggach & W. Schultze, eds., 1996 [bibl.]). He cultivated close contacts with J.K.W. Vatke and P.K. Ma…

Berning, Wilhelm

(106 words)

Author(s): Mehlhausen, Joachim
[German Version] (Mar 26, 1877, Lingen – Nov 23, 1955, Osnabrück) was bishop of Osnabrück (1914–1955). Berning dedicated himself especially to questions involving social and educational policy. At several eucharistic conferences, he earned an international reputation. By means of numerous functions in the Fulda Bishops' Conference he assumed a key position in the …

West, The

(564 words)

Author(s): Mehlhausen, Joachim
[German Version] The German word Abendland (“Evening Land,” the West) was first used by K. Hedio in 1529, as a parallel to Luther’s translation of oriens in Matt 2:1 as Morgenland (“Morning Land,” the East). Originally it had merely geographical significance, from the perspective of Italy: the half of the ancient world toward sunset (“Occident” in contrast to “Orient”), Europe exclusive of its eastern portion. In the 19th century and especially with the return of Romanticism to the Middle Ages (cf. Novalis), it acquired a second meaning: in intellectual history, the Abendland, the Wes…

Braniss, Christlieb Julius

(192 words)

Author(s): Mehlhausen, Joachim
[German Version] (Sep 13, 1792, Breslau – Jun 2, 1873, Breslau), a philosopher from a Jewish family (baptized in 1822), 1826–1870 professor in Breslau. In critical dialogue with G.W.F. Hegel, F.D.E. Schleiermacher, and H. Steffens, Braniss developed a late idealistic philosophical program, in which a speculative philosophy of …

Bettelheim, Bruno

(255 words)

Author(s): Mehlhausen, Joachim
[German Version] (Aug 28, 1903, Vienna – Mar 13, 1990, Silver Spring, MD), Jewish pioneer of psychoanalytical education. Stimulated by the circle of S. Freud's disciples, Bettelheim developed methods to treat children with extreme emotional disorders. After his emigration to the USA (1939) Bettelheim was able to work analytically through the extreme experiences he had suffered during his imprisonment in a German concentration camp, in order to deepen his therapeutic approach ( Individual and Mass Behavior in Extreme Situations, 1943). From 1944 until 1973 Bettelheim was …

Andlaw, Heinrich Bernhard von

(153 words)

Author(s): Mehlhausen, Joachim
[German Version] (Andlaw-Birseck); Aug 20, 1802, Freiburg im Breisgau – Mar 3, 1871, Gut Hugstetten). Following studies at Landshut (under J.M. Sailer et al.) and Freiburg and educational travel in Europe, between 1835 and 1866 Andlaw was elected repeatedly to the lower house of the Baden legislature. In response to the Revolution of 1848, as a champion of Ultramontanism, he joined …