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Lamis

(118 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[English version] (Λάμις). Aus Megara, Anführer einer megarischen Kolonistenschar, die - wohl gemeinsam mit Siedlern aus Chalkis [1] - um 730 v.Chr. nach Sizilien zog. Dort trennten sich die Megarer von den Chalkidiern und gründeten, da diese bereits die günstigsten Plätze besetzt hatten (Naxos, Katane, Leontinoi), Trotilon. Sie folgten einer Einladung aus Leontinoi, die dortigen Sikeler (Siculi) zu vertreiben und in der Polis zu leben, wurden aber bald wieder verjagt und gründeten Thapsos (h. Mag…

Dagisthaeus

(121 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Δαγισθαῖος; Dagisthaîos). As a young Roman commander D., who probably was of Gothic origin, unsuccessfully besieged Persian-occupied Petra in the area of the Lazi in AD 548/9 (Procop. Pers. 2,29 especially 33-43). On account of this he was later taken to court under Justinian on the charge of pro-Persian sentiments and arrested by the emperor (Procop. Goth. 4,9,1-4). For the Narses campaign to Italy he was released from custody and took part in the decisive battle against Totila a…

Ereleuva

(111 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Erelieva, Hereleuva). Concubina of the Amal Thiudimer, mother of  Theoderic the Great (Iord. Get. 269); for the legal position of marriage [1. 262]; for her origins, Anon. Val. 58: Gothic lady; but differing [1. 263]: possibly of provincial Roman origin. E. accompanied her son on his military campaigns (Malchus fr. 18, FHG 4, 130) and was honoured for that by Ennodius (Ennod. MGH (AA) 7,208). At a Catholic baptism, she was given the name Eusebia (Anon. Val. 58) and maintained conta…

Mesotes

(494 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (μεσότης, mesótēs: ‘middle’, ‘mean’, understood in the positive sense). Key concept of a Greek ethical (and resulting political) maxim, which - according to the classical definition of Aristotle (see below) - postulates an orientation toward the mean between ‘too much’ ( hyperbolḗ) and ‘too little’ ( élleipsis). A diffuse mesótēs ideal is perceptible since the Archaic period, and was already propagated by Hesiodus (Op. 694) and ascribed primarily to the Delphic oracle or the Seven Sages ( mēdén ágan: ‘nothing too much’, supporting documents in [1. 11f.]). A…

Cethegus

(145 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
Roman cognomen of a branch of the patrician  Cornelii (ThlL, Onom. 356-59). Attested from the 3rd cent. BC onwards; also Cetegus (Cic. Or. 160); Greek Κέθηγος ( Kéthēgos), supposedly because the family refused to wear the tunica (Porph. Hor. Ars P. 50). Also attested in inscriptions as a family name [1. 293]. There is perhaps no connection between the imperial and republican bearers of the name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Rufius Petronius Nicomachus C. Cos. 504 AD Cos. AD 504, patricius from c. 512, mag. officiorum, princeps senatus. During the siege of Rome …

Hypomeiones

(120 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (οἱ ὑπομείονες/ hoi hypomeíones, literally: the ‘lesser ones’). In the context of the conspiracy of  Kinadon in 398 BC, the hypomeiones are named along with the  helots, the   neodamṓdeis and the   períoikoi as a group of Spartans with limited rights (Xen. Hell. 3,3,6). This was probably not a technical term but rather a collective designation for former   Spartiátai , who for various reasons and in different ways had fewer rights than the   hómoioi : cowardice in battle (cf.   trésantes ) caused the hypomeiones to be socially stigmatized, and loss of wealth or failure in the   a…

Gemellus

(150 words)

Author(s): Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] [1] Friend of king Herod I, entrusted with political and diplomatic commisions Friend of King Herod I. Entrusted with political and diplomatic commissions and with the education of Alexander, the eldest son of the king of Mariamme, he accompanied him in 23 BC to Rome for five years. When in 14 BC Herod began to distrust his son, G. fell from grace (Jos. Ant. Iud. 16,241-243). Bringmann, Klaus (Frankfurt/Main) [German version] [2] Accompanied his father Anatolius, the governor, AD 361 to Phoenicia Son of Anatolius, Cilician, brother of Apolinarius, with whom he …

Nauarchos

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (ναύαρχος; naúarchos). Title of a Spartan naval commander, first evidence of use during the Persian Wars in 480 BC, when Sparta commanded the Greek forces, including the fleet, and the establishment of military offices became necessary. The first naúarchos was Eurybiades (Hdt. 8,2; 8,42). The office of nauarchía then only became significant again in the Peloponnesian War, where it appeared as a one-year office, which any Spartiate could hold only once; this stipulation could be evaded, however, by appointing a competent military commander, e.g. Lysander [1], as epis…

Anaxidamus

(122 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἀναξίδαμος; Anaxídamos). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,7,6 and 4,15,3 Spartan king, Eurypontid, whose reign together with the Agiad Anaxander fell in the time of the second Messenian War. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Achaean, subcommander in 207 BC Achaean, subcommander of  Philopoemen in 207 BC at Mantinea against  Machanidas (Pol. 11,18,1). Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [3] Achaean (middle of 2nd cent. BC) A. from Megalopolis, Achaean envoy to Rome in 164 and 155/4 (Po…

Gundericus

(183 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gunderic). In AD 406 G. was chosen as king of the Vandal Hasdingians after the death of his father  Godigiselus; he united his troops with the Alani under Respendial (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,9), defeated the Franks and by the end of 406 crossed the Rhine. Without facing organized resistance, he plundered Gaul (Oros. 7,40,3; Chron. min. 1,299; 465 Mommsen; Zos. 6,3), crossed the Pyrenees in 409 (Chron. min. 2,17; Soz. 9,12; Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,2) and secured for himself the east of th…

Geisericus (Geiseric)

(718 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Regarding the name [5. 394]. King of the Vandals and Alani AD 428-477, successor to his half-brother  Gundericus. In 429 G. crossed from the south of Spain to north Africa with 80,000 others (Victor Vitensis 1,2), possibly called in by the Comes Africae  Bonifatius [1], who fell from grace in 427, but ultimately he went because the wealth of the country. Neither Boniface nor an eastern Roman auxiliary corps commanded by Aspar ( Ardabur [2]) were able to stop the Vandals' advance; in 431 G. conquered H…

Eudamidas

(170 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Εὐδαμίδας; Eudamídas). [German version] [1] Spartan, general about 380 BC Spartan, the brother of Phoebidas. E. was supposed to lead a campaign in 382 BC together with Amyntas of Macedonia against Olynthus, but was defeated because of his weak forces and probably killed (Xen. Hell. 5,2,24f.; Diod. Sic. 15,20f.; Dem. Or. 19,264). Maybe he is identical with the early 4th-cent. ephor mentioned in IG V 1, 1232. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan king about 330 BC E. I, Spartan king, Eurypontid, the son of Archidamus III, since 331 or 330 successor of his …

Pantaleon

(501 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πανταλέων/ Pantaléōn). [German version] [1] King of the Pisates, middle of the 7th cent. BC Son of Omphalion, king of the Pisates (middle of the 7th cent. BC); P.'s rule may have been perceived as tyranny already in his own lifetime (cf. Paus. 6,21,1). He temporarily wrested the organisation of the Olympic Games from the Eleians (Olympia IV.; Paus. 6,22,2) [1. 220f.]. His support of the Messenians in the second of the Messenian Wars (Str. 8,4,10) is a later invention [2. 153f.]. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Bibliography 1 L. de Libero, Die archaische Tyrannis, 1996 2 K. Tausend, Amphikty…

Godomarus

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Gundomarus, Gundomar). Son of  Gundobad, after the death of his brother Sigismundus (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,6) in AD 524 he was elevated to the position of king of the Burgundians (Chron. min. 2,235 Mommsen). He defeated the Franks under Chlodomer at Vienne on 25 June 524, entered in 530 into an alliance with  Amalasuntha and bought the freedom of prisoners of war (CIL XII 2584). In 533 the Franks under Chlothachar and Childebert defeated G. at Autun and in 534 divided up the Burgundian kingdom amongst themselves (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,11). PLRE 2, 517 G. (2). Meier, Mischa (Bie…

Gundicharius

(146 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Gundahar, Gundihar, Guntiar). Traditionally the son of Gibica; king of the Burgundians. In AD 411 with the king of the Alanians Goar, G. elevated the Gaulish senator  Jovinus in Mainz to the status of emperor (Olympiodorus FHG 4, 61 fr. 17). After the latter's death in 417, he entered into a   foedus with  Honorius (Chron. min. 1,467; 2,155 Mommsen), but in 435 invaded the province of Belgica I where  Aetius [2] defeated him (Sid. Apoll. Carm. 7,234f.). In 436 G., allegedly with 20,000 Burgundians, was killed in…

Dynasteia

(593 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (δυναστεία; dynasteía, cf. also δυνάστης; dynástēs, ‘Ruler’). Derived from δύνασθαι; dýnasthai, ‘to be capable’, ‘to be able’; ‘to have influence’, ‘to be wealthy’ [1. 116]. Dynasteia was primarily the rule ( rulership) of a small, influential group, within which high offices were inherited. Two basic levels of meaning are to be distinguished for dynasteia: in the first of them, its character as the term for a group of rulers or an individual ruler expresses more the original sense of the word; in the second the inheritance of lea…

Anaxander

(132 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀνάξανδρος; Anáxandros). [German version] [1] Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war According to Paus. 3,3,4 and 4,15,3 Spartan king at the time of the second Messenian war, Agiad, son of Eurycrates (Hdt. 7,204). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480) According to Aristophanes of Boeotia (FGrH 379 F 6) leader of the Thebans at  Thermopylae (480). Cf. Hdt. 7,233, who names Leontiades in this position. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [3] Theban, mercenary commander in the Peloponnesian War Theban, 411 BC m…

Anaxandridas

(126 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀναξανδρίδας; Anaxandrídas). [German version] [1] Son of the Spartan king Theopompus According to Hdt. 8,131 son of the Spartan king Theopompus, Eurypontid; his historicity is doubtful. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Spartan king around the middle of the 6th cent. BC Spartan king around the middle of the 6th cent. BC, Agiad. Under the reign of A. and of Ariston Tegea formed an alliance with Sparta. A report, according to which Aeschines, the tyrant of Sicyon, was expelled by A. and  Chilon when the latter was ephor (556…

Petronius

(3,217 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Habermehl, Peter (Berlin) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Franke, Thomas (Bochum)
[German version] [1] High official of the late 4th/early 5th cents. AD Vicarius Hispaniarum AD 395-397, at the court of Mediolanium [1] (Milan) from 398; addressee, with his brother Patroinus, of numerous letters from Symmachus. He gained an unknown office in 401 ( comes rerum privatarum?). From 402-408, P. was praef. praet. per Gallias; while there, he introduced a convocation of the seven provinces, which met annually at Arelate (Arles) (Zos. Epist. 8 = MGH Epp 3, p. 14). He may have been recalled in connection with the usurpation of Constantine…

Chersicrates

(50 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Χερσικράτης; Chersikrátēs). Corinthian; descendant of the Bacchiads (Timaeus FGrH 566 F 80). According to Str. 6,2,4 C. was left behind by  Archias, founder of Syracuse, on the way to Sicily, and settled Corcyra. The credibility of these inherently contradictory statements must be doubted. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
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