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Claudius, Matthias

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Mennecke-Haustein, Ute
[German Version] I. Life – II. Work – III. Influence (Aug 15, 1740, Rheinfeld, Holstein – Jan 21, 1815, Hamburg) I. Life Matthias Claudius, son of a pastor in Schleswig, studied theology and law from 1759 to 1762 at Jena, and other places, and then turned to literature ( Tändeleyen und Erzählungen, 1763). As secretary to Count Holstein in Copenhagen from 1761 to the summer of 1765, he made the acquaintance of F.G. Klopstock and his circle. Years of searching for a position followed. In 1768, he became editor at the Hamburgische Adreß-Comptoir-Nachrichten in Hamburg, a position he he…

Ars moriendi

(634 words)

Author(s): Mennecke-Haustein, Ute | Schmidt-Rost, Reinhard
[German Version] I. History – II. Practical Theology I. History The literature on the “art of dying” arose in the late Middle Ages out of the need for lay catechesis: clerics and lay people assisting the dying needed handbooks to guide a meritorious death that would guarantee the salvation of the dying person's soul (J. Gerson, De arte moriendi, 1403). The ars moriendi coalesced with other literary forms (legends, memento mori, imitatio Christi, etc.) and graphic representations (“ Ars in pictures,” c. 1450) to produce edifying readings that of…

Conversion

(6,787 words)

Author(s): Bischofberger, Otto | Cancik, Hubert | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Zumstein, Jean | Bienert, Wolfgang A. | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. Bible – IV. Church History – V. Systematic Theology – VI. Practical Theology – VII. Missiology – VIII. Judaism – IX. Islam I. History of Religions “Conversion” denotes the religiously interpreted process of total reorientation in which individuals or groups reinterpret their past lives, turn their backs on them, and reestablish and reshape their future lives in a new network of social relationships. The phenomenon was initially …