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(7,092 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Thomas
The paper presents concrete examples for matter borrowing and pattern borrowing with Slavic recipient and donor languages. The main interest is on lexical borrowing, but several instances of grammatical borrowing are discussed as well, thus giving evidence for the effects of borrowing hierarchies. The asymmetry of language contact situations is illustrated by asymmetries of borrowing processes. The focus is on borrowings from German into West Slavic languages, with other contact situati…
Date: 2020-05-22


(6,230 words)

Author(s): Menzel, Thomas
Kashubian is a highly structured dialect continuum with, to this day, relatively limited transregional normalization and standardization. In historical terms, Kashubian can be conceptualized as a transitional dialect between the extinct language of the Baltic Slavic (Pomeranian) population and contemporary Polish. For centuries, Kashubian has existed in close linguistic contact with German, as well as, to this day, with Polish. Contact phenomena are not limited to vocabulary, but rather…
Date: 2020-05-22

Predicative Instrumental

(4,052 words)

Author(s): Hentschel, Gerd | Menzel, Thomas
The predicative instrumental (PI) is one of several formal devices for encoding primary and secondary nominal predicates. The distribution of these formal devices – instrumental case, cases of agreement (nominative, accusative), and in some languages or varieties, also analytical constructions (with prepositions or conjunctions) for specific contexts – varies highly across the Slavic languages. Currently, the predicative instrumental is most widely used in Polish and Russian, with some …
Date: 2020-05-22