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Zwilling (Didymus), Gabriel

(168 words)

Author(s): Metz, Detlef
[German Version] (c. 1487, Annaberg – 1558, Torgau), OESA, M.A. in 1518. After joining with Luther, during the latter’s stay at the Wartburg he and A. v. Karlstadt led the Wittenberg reforming movement. He preached against the current theory and practice of the Eucharist and images in churches. In November 1521 he withdrew from the Wittenberg Augustinians and reformed the order of worship in Eilenburg. On Luther’s return, Zwilling subordinated himself to him totally and remained loyal to Luther’s …

Veghe, Johannes

(182 words)

Author(s): Metz, Detlef
[German Version] (c. 1430/1435, Münster – Sep 21, 1504, Münster) matriculated at the University of Cologne in 1450; shortly afterwards he entered the house of the Brothers of the Common Life in Münster (Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life). He appears later as rector of the daughter house in Rostock, founded in 1462. As rector of the Münster house, he was also responsible for leading the conferences of the Münster Colloquium, the federation of the houses in northwestern Germany. In 1481 he ret…

Zerbolt, Gerhard

(196 words)

Author(s): Metz, Detlef
[German Version] (1367, Zutphen – 1398, Windesheim), writer associated with the devotio moderna. After preliminary studies (of which we know nothing more), between 1383 and 1385 Zerbolt attended the chapter school in Deventer, where he joined the first community of the Brothers of the Common Life. He defended a life of devotio and the reading of (carefully selected) vernacular religious literature by the laity. ¶ His two major works – both dedicated to the spiritual life – enjoyed extraordinary prestige among the adherents of the devotio moderna. Detlef Metz Bibliography Works includ…

Windelband, Wilhelm

(214 words)

Author(s): Metz, Detlef
[German Version] (May 11, 1848, Potsdam – Oct 22, 1915, Heidelberg), professor of philosophy at Zürich 1876, Freiburg 1877, Straßburg (Strasbourg) 1882, Heidelberg 1903. Windelband was the father of the southwest German or Baden school of Neo-Kantianism. Using culture as a central concept, he for-¶ mulated a systematic approach that sought to combine historicality and a priori validity. As his starting point, he took I. Kant’s practical philosophy. The supratemporal content of cognition is created solely by its relationship to the ideal values of the…

Montanus, Jacobus

(155 words)

Author(s): Metz, Detlef
[German Version] (c. 1460, Gernsbach an der Murg – c. 1534, Herford), representative of devotio moderna , Humanist and follower of the Reformation. After studies in Deventer under A. Hegius, in 1486 Montanus became leader of the brothers in Herford, and again c. 1500 after a stay in Münster; he was also director and confessor of the sisters' convent. His writings include works on the Latin language, and religious poems. He was a friend of J. Wimpfeling and of W. Pirkheimer. Through his influe…

Waldis, Burkard

(269 words)

Author(s): Metz, Detlef
[German Version] (c. 1490, Allendorf, Werra – 1556, Abterode). As a Franciscan in Riga, he sided with the Reformation early on and worked as a pewterer after 1524. In 1527 he produced Die Parabell vam vorlorn Szohn, a play he had written in Low German, in Riga, contrasting the Reformation doctrine of justification with Catholic teaching. For reasons that are not entirely clear, he was imprisoned from 1536 to 1539; when he was released, he returned to Hesse. There is evidence of his presence as a student in Wittenberg in 1540; afte…

Mande, Hendrik

(141 words)

Author(s): Metz, Detlef
[German Version] (c. 1360, Dordrecht – 1431, Sion Monastery, Beverwijk). First a clerk at the court of the counts of Holland, Mande was led by the preaching of G. Groote to the devotio moderna . After a stay in Deventer and Zwolle he became, in 1395, a redditus (unordained canon) at the monastery of Windesheim (Windesheim Congregation), where he worked as an illustrator and copyist. Mande often received visions, recorded by J. Busch in his Chronicon Windeshemense. He was the author of mystical writings in Middle Dutch, in which he independently reworked the writings of …