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Gem cutting

(2,520 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
Michel, Simone (Hamburg) A. Research History (CT) [German version] 1. From the Middle Ages to the Late Renaissance (CT) During the early Middle Ages interest in cut gems had declined rapidly. Colourful gemstones were indeed used to decorate objects, but generally without figurative motifs. In the Carolingian and the Hohenstaufen periods (9th cent.; 12th/13th cents.), the cutting of cameos was once again taken up [2; 11. 2. fn. 3, 375. fn. 2 und 6, 380. fn. 30]. In the Middle Ages, gems and cameos from Antiquity w…

Thamyras

(97 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Θαμύρας; Thamýras). Name on five gems. Only the 18th century paste on a reliquary in the Vienna treasury is verifiably a copy of a missing gem with a Nereid from the period of Augustus. T. is deemed to be the signature of a gem-cutter from the circle of Dioscorides [8]. The other four 'signatures' are modern additions to ancient stones or elements of forgeries, probably following the Viennese model. Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography E. Zwierlein-Diehl, T.-Gemmen, in: H.-U. Cain et al. (eds.), Beiträge zur Ikonographie und Hermeneutik, Fests…

Gnaeus

(120 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] Glyptographer/gem engraver of the Roman republic, signatures on a sardonyx with the theft of the palladion (Diomedes at the altar, Collection of the Duke of Devonshire), amethyst with a portrait of the young M. Antonius (Ionides Collection) and a hyacinth with a copy of the Polycletic encaser (formerly the Marlborough Collection, lost). A characteristic of G. is the slanted positioning of attributes behind a bust, e.g., an aquamarine of Hercules with a club ( c. 20 BC, London, BM) and a cornelian of a queen with a scepter (New York, MMA).  Gem cutting Michel, Simone (Hamb…

Onesas

(157 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Ὀνέσας; Onésas). Hellenistic gem-cutter who signed a sard intaglio with an altered image of Athena Lemnia (London, BM; [1. 203, n. 56, pl. 53,5]). The latter also appears repeatedly like a replica on a more coarsely worked glass paste (Berlin, SM; [1. 206, n. 78, pl. 47,1; 2. 95, pl. 46, 219]). His signature can also be found on a yellow glass paste depicting a Muse playing the lyre (Florence, MA), which is regarded as a prime example of Hellenistic glyptics [1. 206, ns. 79-80, pl…

Pergamus

(166 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] Classical Period gem cutter, whose signature ΠΕΡΓΑ (PERGA) is restored to Pergamos in accordance with master's signatures of the Classical Period which occur mostly in the nominative. A fire-damaged carnelian scarab, signed by him in this way, with the head of a youth in a Phrygian cap (Saint Petersburg, ER) has been found, together with coins of Lysimachus [2], in a grave at Kerch in the Crimea [1. 134, 198f., table  8,5; 3. 13126, 138f.56, fig. 41c, table 32,9], but on the basis of the lettering of the signature on the flap of the cap and the style …

Syries

(77 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Συρίης/ Syríēs). Like Onesimus a gem-cutter of 'island stones' (second half of the 6th cent. BC), both probably working in Euboea. The inscription ΣΥΡΙΕΣ on a green steatite pseudo-scarab, with the reverse moulded as a Silen mask and an image of a citharode climbing on to a bêma (Rostrum) (London, BM), is considered to be the earliest master signature of a gem-cutter. Gem cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 83 f., note 48 f., plate 19.

Alexas

(55 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] Father of  Aulus [2] and Quintus, probably a Campanian stone carvers' family during the Roman Republican period with their preferred subjects being of Aphrodisian-Dionysian character. A.'s signature is on only one cameo fragment with a marine animal (London, BM).  Gem and cameo cutters Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 286 annotation 113.

Aulos

(109 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] [1] see Musical instruments Aulos, see  Musical instruments Michel, Simone (Hamburg) [German version] [2] Stonemason of the 1st cent. BC Stonemason of the 1st cent. BC, son of  Alexas, brother of Quintus. Signed works: Eros bound to tropaion (amethyst, London, BM), nailing down butterfly (hyacinth, The Hague, MK), bound (cameo, lost), with Aphrodite (carnelian, London, BM); satyr head (intaglio, lost); Maenad busts (hyacinth, erstwhile Collection Ludovisi); athlete (carnelian, Paris, CM); Poseidon and Amymone (white …

Hyperechius

(48 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] Gem-cutter of the Imperial Roman period (Antonine/1st cent.). Signed red jasper with Socrates bust (Berlin, SM) and yellow jasper (a variety of stone typical of the late Imperial period) with a lion (Boston, MFA).  Gem-cutting Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 322, n. 106, pl. 96,4;5.

Pyrgoteles

(222 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] (Πυργοτέλης; Pyrgotélēs). 4th- cent. BC gem cutter, known from Pliny (Plin. HN 37,8) and Apuleius (Apul. Flor. 7), who is supposed to have worked for Alexander [4] the Great and, according to ancient sources, was equal in fame and ability to Apelles and to Lysippus (Apelles [4]; Lysippus [2]) (Plin. HN 7,125). In modern times this famous name has been engraved as a forged signature on ancient gems; the gem cutter Allessandro Cesari (16th century) adopted the name of his famous predecessor and signed his works accordingly. The name inscription  P. can be found, small a…

Pergamos

(141 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] Gemmenschneider der klass. Zeit, dessen Signatur ΠΕΡΓΑ (PERGA) entsprechend der in klass. Zeit meist im Nom. auftretenden Meistersignaturen zu Pergamos ergänzt wird. Der von ihm so signierte, durch Brand beschädigte Karneol-Skarabäus mit einem Jünglingskopf unter phrygischer Mütze (St. Petersburg, ER) wurde zusammen mit Mz. des Lysimachos [2] in einem Grab bei Kertsch auf der Krim gefunden [1. 134, 198f., Taf. 8,5; 3. 13126, 138f.56, Abb. 41c, Taf. 32,9], ist jedoch aufgrund der Buchstabenformen der Signatur auf der Lasche der Mütze sowie …

Onesas

(123 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] (Ὀνέσας). Hell. Steinschneider, signierte einen Sard-Intaglio mit Umbildung der Athena Lemnia (London, BM; [1. 203, Anm. 56, Taf. 53,5]), die auch auf einer gröber gearbeiteten Glaspaste replikenhaft wiederholt erscheint (Berlin, SM; [1. 206, Anm. 78, Taf. 47,1; 2. 95, Taf. 46, 219]). Seine Signatur findet sich weiterhin auf einer gelben Glaspaste mit einer leierspielenden Muse (Florenz, AM), die als Musterbeispiel hell. Glyptik gilt [1. 206, Anm. 79-80, Taf. 53,6], sowie auf ein…

Aulos

(98 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] [1] s. Musikinstrumente s. Musikinstrumente Michel, Simone (Hamburg) [English version] [2] Steinschneider, 1. Jh. v. Chr. Steinschneider des 1.Jh. v.Chr., Sohn des Alexas, Bruder des Quintus. Signierte Werke: Eros an Tropaion gefesselt (Amethyst, London, BM), Schmetterling festnagelnd (Hyazinth, Den Haag, MK), gefesselt (Kameo, verschollen), mit Aphrodite (Karneol, London, BM); Satyrkopf (Intaglio, verschollen); Mänadenbüste (Hyazinth, ehem. Slg. Ludovisi); Athlet (Karneol, Paris, CM); Poseidon …

Pyrgoteles

(204 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] (Πυργοτέλης). Von Plinius (Plin. nat. 37,8) und Apuleius (Apul. flor. 7) überl. Steinschneider des 4. Jh. v. Chr., der für Alexandros [4] d.Gr. tätig gewesen sein soll und den ant. Quellen zufolge einem Apelles und Lysipp (Apelles [4]; Lysippos [2]) an Ruhm und Können gleichstand (Plin. nat. 7,125). In der Neuzeit wurde der berühmte Name nachträglich als gefälschte Signatur auf ant. Gemmen eingeschnitten; der Gemmenschneider Allessandro Cesari (16. Jh.) nannte sich nach seinem be…

Gnaios

(101 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] Steinschneider aus der Zeit der röm. Republik, Signaturen auf Sardonyx mit Palladionraub (Diomedes am Altar, Slg. des Duke of Devonshire), Amethyst mit Porträt des jungen M. Antonius (Ionides Collection) sowie Hyazinth mit Kopie des polykletischen Öleingießers (ehemals Slg. Marlborough, verschollen). Als Eigenheit des G. gilt das Schrägstellen von Attributen hinter einer Büste, z.B. Aquamarin mit Herakles und Keule (um 20 v.Chr., London, BM) sowie Karneol mit Königin und Zepter (New York, MMA). Steinschneidekunst Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography M.L.…

Alexas

(43 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] Vater von Aulos [2] u. Quintus, eine wohl kampan. Steinschneiderfamilie röm.-republikan. Zeit mit bevorzugt aphrodisisch-dionysischer Thematik. Die Signatur des A. nur auf einem Kameo-Frg. mit Seetier (London, BM). Gemmen- u. Kameenschneider Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 286 Anm. 113.

Hyperechios

(41 words)

Author(s): Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[English version] Steinschneider der röm. Kaiserzeit (antoninisch/1. Jh.). Signierte roten Jaspis mit Sokrates-Büste (Berlin, SM) und gelben Jaspis (eine für die spätere Kaiserzeit typische Steinvarietät) mit Löwe (Boston, MFA). Steinschneidekunst Michel, Simone (Hamburg) Bibliography Zazoff, AG, 322, Anm. 106, Taf. 96,4;5.

Scylax

(311 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Σκύλαξ; Skýlax). [German version] [1] From Caryanda, explorer 519/18 BC S. from Caryanda. Discoverer of shipping routes and geographer, in 519/512 BC [5. 78] in the service of Darius [1], he sailed  down the Indus [1] from Caspapyrus to the Indian coast, then - rounding the Arabian peninsula for the first time - through the Erythra Thalatta [1] to modern Suez (Hdt. 4,44) in 30 months [1. vol. 1, 33, 52 f.; 1. vol. 2, 14 f.; 2. 622 f.]. S. wrote about Heraclides of Mylasa (Suda s.v. Σ.), and therefore died after 480 BC ([2. 634 f.]). Seven fragments on India (FGrH 709) are ascribed to his Pe…

Dexamenus

(359 words)

Author(s): Kearns, Emily (Oxford) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
(Δεξαμενός; Dexamenós). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Olenus in Achaea Mythical king of  Olenus in Achaea, host of  Hercules; his name indicates that hospitality is his main function in the narrative. Hercules repaid his hospitality by saving D.'s daughter who was being pursued by the centaur Eurytion. There are various versions of the story: either D. was forced to betroth his daughter Mnesimache to Eurytion who was, however, killed by Hercules (Apollod. 2,91); or Eurytion tried to rape D.'s daugh…

Gem cutting

(2,838 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient see  Seals Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) [German version] II. Phoenician Phoenician and Punic gem cutting (GC) (= glyptography) is known almost exclusively through stamp seals in the form of scarabees ( Scarabee) or scaraboids that were very widespread in the ancient world; the body of the beetle is graphically linear in the Phoenician east, whilst in the Punic west ─ under the Ionian-Etruscan influence ─ it is structured much more three-dimensionally. Here Greek motifs (He…
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