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BOJNŪRD

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Mohammad Hossein Nejatian | Eckart Ehlers | C. Edmund Bosworth
a town and district in Khorasan. i. The town and district. ii. History. The town (1976: 47,719 inhabitants; lat 37°29’ N, long 57°17’ E) is situated at the foot of the Ālādāḡ. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 3, pp. 326-327 BOJNŪRD, a town and district in Khorasan. i. The Town and District The town of Bojnūrd (1976: 47,719 inhabitants), situated at 37°29’ north latitude and 57°17’ east longitude at the foot of the Ālādāḡ (q.v.) and in the center of the Khorasan trench, is of relatively recent origin. Possibly founded b…
Date: 2016-12-02

ARDABĪL

(8,706 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth | Xavier de Planhol | M. E. Weaver | M. Medley | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
town and district in northeastern Azerbaijan. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 4, pp. 357-365 i. History of Ardabīl Ardabīl (spelled Ardavīl in the Ḥodūd al-ʿālam, and vocalized Ardobīl by Samʿānī), the name of a town and a district in northeastern Azerbaijan. It is situated at 48° 17’ east longitude and 38° 15’ north latitude, about 25 miles from the present Soviet frontier and 40 miles from the Caspian Sea across the mountains and then the lowlands of Ṭāleš. The town of Ardabīl lies on a p…
Date: 2015-11-11

ARĀK

(2,046 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth | Xavier de Planhol | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
Arāk was originally the popular name of Solṭānābād, a town in western Iran, but is now the official name as well. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 3, pp. 247-248 i. History Arāk was originally the popular name of Solṭānābād, a town in western Iran, but is now the official name as well. It lies at 49° 41’ east longitude and 34° 5’ north latitude, 284 km southwest of Tehran. It is situated at an altitude of 1,800 m in the plain of Farāhān, on the edge of the Zagros massif, adjoining the extensive Tuz…
Date: 2014-12-15

AHVĀZ

(4,001 words)

Author(s): C. Edmund Bosworth | X. De Planhol | J. Lerner | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
city of southwestern Iran, located in the province of Ḵūzestān on the Kārun river. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 7, pp. 688-691 AHVĀZ, a city of southwestern Iran. Located in the province of Ḵūzestān at 31°19′ north latitude and 48°46′ east longitude, elevation 82 feet, Ahvāz lies on the Kārūn (early Islamic Doǰayl) river below its confluence with the Dezfūl river or Āb-e Dez in the Ḵūzestān plain, but at a point where the river breaks through the low ridge of sandstone hills, the Jabal …
Date: 2016-09-02

BIRJAND

(2,637 words)

Author(s): Moḥammad-Ḥasan Ganjī | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
the capital and a sub-province in Khorasan-e Jonubi Province. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 3, pp. 272-274 i. BĪRJAND BĪRJAND, town and district in the southeastern part of the province of Khorasan. Town. The traditional town (lat 32°52′ N, long 59°13′ E), situated at an elevation of about 1,500 m, was built on low hills separated by a dry riverbed called Šāhrūd. It had two forts, one on a prominent high ground in the south and the other on low ground in the north of the city. The old town was ab…
Date: 2015-06-26

BEHBAHAN

(2,422 words)

Author(s): Aḥmad Eqtedārī | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
a city and sub-province in Khuzestan province. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 1, pp. 94-96 BEHBAHAN (Behbahān, also pronounced Behbehān), a city and sub-province in Khuzestan province. i. BEHBAHĀN BEHBAHĀN (also pronounced Behbehān), Iranian city and county ( šahrestān) in the province of Ḵūzestān. The county of Behbehān was defined in 1330 Š./1951 (Razmārā, Farhang VI, p. 62) as bordering on the Mārūn river to the north, the county of Ahvāz and Ḵorramšahr to the west, the Persian Gulf to the south, and the county of S…
Date: 2016-11-10

BORUJERD

(1,294 words)

Author(s): Eckart Ehlers | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
town and sub-province in Lorestan Province in western Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume IV, Fascicle 4, pp. 375-376 BORUJERD, town and sub-province in Lorestan Province in western Iran. i. BORŪJERD BORŪJERD (or Barūjerd), town and šahrestān in the province of Lorestān in western Iran. Situated along the highway between Tehran and the oil province of Ḵūzestān and located halfway between Hamadān and Kermānšāh (now Bāḵtarān), Borūjerd has always been a road and railway junction of great strategic importance. Little is known about the origins and the earl…
Date: 2015-06-26

DEZFUL

(3,809 words)

Author(s): Massoud Kheirabadi | Colin MacKinnon | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
a town and sub-province in northern Khuzestan province. A version of this article is available in print Volume VII, Fascicle 4, pp. 350-354 DEZFUL (< Dez-pol “Fortress bridge”), a town and sub-province ( šahrestān) in northern Khuzestan province (Ostān-e Ḵuzestān). DEZFŪL i. Geography The šahrestān is bounded on the north by Lorestān province, on the west by Īlām province, and on the east and south by Īza, Šūštar, and Ahvāz šahrestāns. It covers an area of 7,884 km2 and consists of three districts ( baḵš): Markazī (including the rural districts Šamsābād, Šarqī, Šamʿūn, and Nāẓe…
Date: 2015-06-26

ĀBĀDĀN

(4,938 words)

Author(s): L. P. Elwell-Sutton | Xavier de Planhol | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
island and city in the ostān (province) of Ḵūzestān at the head of the Persian Gulf. A version of this article is available in print Volume I, Fascicle 1, pp. 51-57 ĀBĀDĀN i. History In medieval sources, and up to the present century, the name of the island always occurs in the Arabic form ʿAbbādān; this name has sometimes been derived from ʿabbād “worshiper.” Belāḏorī (d. 279/892), on the other hand, quotes the story that the town was founded by one ʿAbbād b. Ḥosayn Ḵabeṭī, who established a garrison there during the governorship of Ḥaǰǰāǰ (75-95/695-714)…
Date: 2017-05-23

BANDAR-E ʿABBAS(I)

(3,662 words)

Author(s): X. De Planhol | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
a port city and capital of Hormozgan province on the Persian Gulf. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 7, pp. 685-687 BANDAR-E ABBAS(I), a port city and capital of Hormozgan province on the Persian Gulf. BANDAR-E ʿABBAS(I) i. The City Geographical situation and historical background. At the entrance to the Persian Gulf, Bandar-e ʿAbbās extends about 2 km along the shallow Clarence (Ḵūrān) strait between Qešm island and the mainland; its lack of a natural harbor obliges vessels to use tenders to handle cargo, a h…
Date: 2017-05-17

BĀBOL

(2,009 words)

Author(s): Xavier de Planhol | S. Blair | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
town in Māzandarān, formerly Bārforūš. A version of this article is available in print Volume III, Fascicle 3, pp. 317 BĀBOL, town in Māzandarān, formerly Bārforūš BĀBOL i. The Town town in Māzandarān, formerly Bārforūš; Bābol lies near the Bābol river, occupying a central position in the coastal plain. It was at first a small, local market-place, as indicated by the name Bārforūš (lit. [place where] loads are sold) which it bore until 1927. The settlement developed in early Safavid times on the site of the old town of Māmṭī…
Date: 2016-09-19

ASTARA

(1,870 words)

Author(s): Marcel Bazin | Mohammad Hossein Nejatian
a town and sub-province in the province of Ardabil, northern Iran. A version of this article is available in print Volume II, Fascicle 8, pp. 837 ASTARA, a town and sub-province in the province of Ardabil, on the Caspian coast (lat 38°26′ N, long 48°51′ E). This entry is divided into two articles: ĀSTĀRĀ i. Town and sub-province Since 1228/1813, when the treaty of Golestān fixed the frontier between Qajat Persia and the Russian empire on the Āstārā river, the town and district have been divided, the part south of that river belonging to Iran, the part …
Date: 2016-12-22