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Chorizontes

(188 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (χωρίζοντες; chōrízontes). Collective name (from χωρίζειν; chōrízein, ‘to separate’) used in the Homer scholia to describe grammarians who, on the grounds of conscientious observation of linguistic and stylistic differences and contradictions in the ‘ Iliad and the ‘ Odyssey, as well as their content, hold to the thesis that the ‘ Odyssey is not by Homer. The Alexandrian  grammarians, who held to the ‘orthodox’ position (established by Aristotle), saw Homer as author of both Iliad and Odyssey; in consequence,  Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace and his school …

Diple

(178 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (διπλῆ; diplê). Editorial mark of the Alexandrian philologists, used in textual criticism, simple (generally >, but also <) or accompanied by two dots (). Documentary evidence relates it predominantly with Homeric philology: The simple diple (ἀπερίστικτος or καθαρά; aperístiktos or kathará) was used by Aristarchus of Samothrace, to refer to various critical-exegetic observations on the interpretation of a text, on its language, the realia etc., and the diplê periestigménē (διπλῆ περιεστιγμένη) by contrast, to mark those passages in which he polem…

Acusilaus

(277 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Ἀκουσίλαος; Akousílaos) from Argos. Lived at the end of the 6th and first half of 5th cent. BC, was according to Hecataeus of Miletus one of the first Greek prose writers and wrote in the Ionian dialect. He is traditionally regarded as belonging to the group of so-called logographoi (a generic term used in Thuc. 1,21,1) ( Logographer) and, as far as we can determine, was primarily concerned with  mythography. His Γενεαλογίαι or Ἱστορίαι comprised three books that, it seems, corresponded to the break-up into divine, heroic and …

Hypomnema

(986 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (ὑπόμνημα; hypómnēma, more rarely ὑπομνηματισμός; hypomnēmatismós; Latin commentarius or more rarely commentarium). The word Hypommnema (from the root of μιμνήσκω; mimnḗskō, ‘to remember’) has the abstract basic meaning ‘memory’, presence in the memory or call/support for the memory (in this sense it already appears in Thuc. 2,44,2 and in Isocrates, Demosthenes, Xenophon etc.), however, in the course of time it takes on a large number of different connotations and nuances, especially the widespread (…

Daphitas

(234 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Δαφίτας; Daphítas, also Δαφίδας; Daphídas). Greek grammarian (‘sophist’ according to Val. Max. 1,8), probably from the 2nd cent. BC, if it is accepted that he lived at the same time as Attalus III (see below). The Suda (δ 99 s.v. Δαφίδας) says that he came from Telmessus in Caria and made claims in a work about Homer that the poet was not telling the truth because the Athenians did not take part in the expedition to Troy. Strabo (14,647) tells that D. was crucified on Mt Thorax near …

Amarantus

(96 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Ἀμαραντός; Amarantós) of Alexandria. Greek grammarian of the 2nd cent. AD (older contemporary of  Galen, who quotes him). His commentary on  Theocritus was extensively used in late antiquity and Byzantine times, and is quoted in the EM. Athenaeus reproduces some fragments of a work Περὶ σκηνής in connection with biographical anecdotes about actors.  Biography;  Theocritus Montanari, Franco (Pisa) Bibliography M. Haupt, De A. grammatici commentario in Theocriti idyllia, Opuscula III 2, 1876, 645 H. Maehler, in: Entretiens XL, 98-99 G. Wentzel, s. v. A. (3)…

Choiroboskos Georgios

(466 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Χοιροβοσκός; Choiroboskós). Byzantine grammarian. His dates were for a long time problematic, but he has now been firmly placed in the 9th cent.: terminus post quem is his quotation (in the epimerismi) of authors in the 1st half of the 9th cent.; terminus ante quem use of his work in the Etymologicum genuinum (2nd half of the 9th cent.). He is ascribed the official title of οἰκουμενικὸς διδάσκαλος ( oikoumenikòs didáskalos), which is attested for the 1st half of the 9th cent. Thus he fits well into the cultural milieu of the 9th-cent. renaissance (…

Critical signs

(858 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Greek σημεῖα/ sēmeîa, Lat. notae). One of the most important technical and methodological inventions of Alexandrian  philology were the critical signs (CS) used in philological exegetic work. Their development and use cannot be followed continuously as there are gaps in the evidence. One exception, however, is the edition and exegesis technique of the Alexandrian grammarians with reference to Homer, about which we are adequately informed both through a small number of anonymous gramm…

Asterisk

(128 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (ἀστερίσκος). Symbol of textual criticism in Alexandrian philology. It is not clear what meaning  Aristophanes [4] of Byzantium attached to it when he introduced it; for  Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace, it marked a repeated verse: he used an asterisk for repetitions that he regarded as appropriate, and an asterisk with an obelus for those that he regarded as interpolations. In ‘editorial’ usage the asterisk marked the end of an ode in lyric poetry: in the edition of Alcaeus, Aristo…

Amerias

(109 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Ἀμερίας; Amerías) from Macedonia. Greek grammarian and lexicographer from the Alexandrian period, probably earlier than Aristarchus. It is uncertain whether all quotes -- above all with Athenaeus and Hesychius and in various collections of scholia -- derive from the main work, the Γλῶσσαι, which is a lexigraphical collection of dialectical expressions, arranged according to themes. Perhaps one can identify it with one of the glossographoi, which were often quoted with this collective term.  Aristarchus;  Grammarians;  Lexicography;  Glossography Montanari…

Carystius

(163 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Καρύστιος; Karýstios) of Pergamum. Greek polygraph with a wide range of interests, who probably lived in the 2nd half of the 2nd cent. BC. The majority of fragments is found in Athenaeus, who predominantly quotes from Ἱστορικὰ ὑπομνήματα (at least 2 vols, or possibly 3 vols, if the two references ἐν τρίτῳ Ὑπομνημάτων in Ath. 12,542e; 13,577c are to be assigned to the same opus: discussion in [2]), an assorted collection of reports on various historical personalities, customs, and …

Antidorus

(140 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] From Cyme (Ἀντίδωρος ὁ Κυμαῖος; Antídōros ho Kymaîos). Grammarian and perhaps also lexicographer, lived probably in the 3rd cent. BC. He is said to have initially called himself γραμματικός ( grammatikós; schol. Dion. Thrax 3,24; 7,24; 448,6); in the sources he often appears erroneously as Autodorus. We know two titles of his works, Περὶ Ὁμήρου καὶ Ἡσιόδου and Λέξις; the first is doubtless a syngramma, regarding the second one, it is not entirely certain that it was a lexicographical collection, as it may have been a treatise concerning style.…

Chaeris

(187 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Χαῖρις; Chaîris). Greek grammarian of the school of Aristarchus of Samothrace; father of a grammarian called Apollonius [7] (ὁ τοῦ Χαίριδος; ho toû Chaíridos). It is not clear whether he lived directly after Aristarchus. His work was used by Tryphon, Didymus and Herodianus. We are better informed about his exegesis on Homer: about 10 fragments are known from the scholiae, and Schol. Hom. Od. 7,80 mentions the title Διορθωτικά ( Diorthōtiká; ‘Improvements). C. is also quoted about 10 times in the Pindar scholiae, almost exclusively at P. 4. There are also a few…

Apion

(663 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] (Ἀπίων; Apíōn). Grammarian and lexicographer, lived at end of the 1st cent. BC to first half of 1st cent. AD. He was born in an Egyptian oasis, was the son of a certain Poseidonius, was brought up in the house of Didymus in Alexandria and was the successor to Theon as leader of the Alexandrian school of grammarians. During the reign of Tiberius and of Claudius he taught in Rome, where Plinius the Elder heard him. He also undertook travels in Greece and held lectures in various plac…

Leogoras

(365 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Λεωγόρας; Leōgóras). [German version] [1] Father of the orator Andocides [1], 5th cent. BC Father of the orator Andocides [1], member of an old Athenian noble family, tracing its roots back to Telemachus and Hermes and linked by marriage to the Alcmaeonids (Hellanicus FGrH 323a F 24a-c; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 109). L. was mocked by Aristophanes [3] because of his debauched and profligate way of life. In 426/5 BC he led a legation to the Macedonian king Perdiccas II (IG I3 61, l. 51; [1. 30; 2. 1f.]). In 415, L. successfully used a paranomon graphe to clear himself fr…

Demo

(342 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δημώ; Dēmṓ). Shortened form of a compound (see D. [3], [4]). [German version] [1] Daughter of Celeus The daughter of  Celeus, king of Eleusis, and  Metaneira. Together with her sisters Callidice, Cleisidice and Callithoe, she has a friendly encounter with  Demeter who is wandering about in the shape of an old woman (Hom. H. 2,109). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Name of the Cymaean Sibyl Name of the Cymaean  Sibyl, of whom, however, the Cymaeans did not know an oracle. They could only point to a water jug that contained the bones of the Sibyl (Hyper…

Arcadius

(544 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor (383-408 AD) Roman emperor (AD 383-1/05/408), born in 377 in Spain, son of Theodosius I. Educated by the pagan  Themistius and the Christian Arsenius; proclaimed Augustus on 19/01/383, since 394 (departure of Theodosius I into war against Eugenius) ruler of the East, in 395 together with Honorius successor of Theodosius I. A. is considered to have been subject to influence: in the beginning the praefectus praetorio  Rufinus who was murdered in 395, conducted his affairs, later the praepositus sacri cubiculi  Eutropius, who…

Athenocles

(201 words)

Author(s): Montanari, Franco (Pisa) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Ἀθηνοκλῆς; Athēnoklês). [German version] [1] From Cyzicus. Grammarian, 3rd/2nd cent. BC from Cyzicus. Grammarian. On the basis of Didymus in Schol. Hom. Od. 14,503, where in reference to him the word προηθέτει (‘has athetized earlier’) is used (see also Schol. Hom. Od. 6,144), he is believed to be older than Aristarchus [4] of Samothrace or at least one of his contemporaries, so that he can also be placed in the 3rd/2nd cents. BC. Ammonius [3] of Alexandria, the student of Aristarchus, published a text Πρ…

Hellanicus

(786 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Ἑλλάνικος; Hellánikos). [German version] [1] H. of Mytilene Greek historian, end of 5th cent. BC (T 1). Contrary to ancient tradition, which sometimes puts his birth date towards the end of the 6th cent. (T 4), sometimes at the beginning of the 5th cent. (T 3) and sometimes in the year 480/479 BC (T 1 and 6), younger rather than older contemporary of  Herodotus. At any rate the datable works belong to the last third of the 5th cent. H. analyzed the Herodotean collection of topics into individual components by a series of monographs and, reverting to  Hecataeus [3], even…

Draco

(834 words)

Author(s): Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Δράκων; Drákōn) [German version] [1] see Dragon slayers see  Dragon slayers Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) [German version] [2] Athenian lawmaker c. 620 BC Athenian lawmaker said to have enacted in 621/20 BC the first ‘statutes’ (θεσμοί; thesmoí) set down in writing. We know as little about D. personally as we do about his activity as a lawmaker: he was perhaps one of the  Thesmothetai and/or given special authority [1. 31]. His laws were written down and publicly displayed on numbered blocks of wood (ἄξονες; áxones) that were hung up vertically and could be swivelled on…
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