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(161 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, (modern Turkish Gülhane) the “House of roses”, or Gülk̲h̲āne Meydāni̊, is the name of a part of the gardens which lie along the Sea of Marmora on the east side of the Topkapi̊ Sarāyi̊ in Istanbul [ q.v.]; the name is derived from the fact that in olden days the building, in which the rose sweetmeats for the use of the court were prepared, stood there. The place is famous in history because the celebrated firman of Sultan ʿAbd al-Mad̲j̲īd, the so-called Ḵh̲aṭṭ- i s̲h̲erīf promulgating the reforms, was publicly proclaimed there on Sunday 26 S̲h̲aʿbān 1255/3…


(1,909 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, Constantinople. 1. To the Ottoman Conquest (1453). The city, which Constantine the Great on 11 May 330 raised to be the capital of the Eastern Empire and which was called after him, was known to the Arabs as Ḳusṭanṭīniyya (in poetry also Ḳusṭanṭīna , with or without the article); the older name Byzantion ( Buzanṭiyā and various spellings) was also known to them, as well as the fact that the later Greeks, as at the present day, used to call Constantinople simply ἥ πόλις as “the city” par excellence (Masʿūdī, iii, 406 = § 1291 …

Fāḍil Bey

(344 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, Ḥüseyn (ca. 1170/1757-1225/1810) also known as Fāḍil-i Enderūnī , Ottoman poet celebrated for his erotic works, was a grandson of Ẓāhir Āl ʿUmar [ q.v.] of ʿAkkā, who rebelled against the Porte in the seventies of the 18th century. Taken to Istanbul in 1190/1776 by the ḳapudān pas̲h̲a G̲h̲āzī Ḥasan after his grandfather and father had been slain in battle, he was brought up in the Palace. An amatory intrigue led to his expulsion in 1198/1783-4, and for twelve years he led a vagabond life in poverty in Istanbul. Ḳaṣīde s addressed to Selīm III and the statesmen …

Isfendiyār Og̲h̲lu

(818 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
the name of a Turkoman dynasty, which founded the independent kingdom of Ḳasṭamonu on the decline of the Sald̲j̲ūḳ kingdom of Ḳonya, at the end of the 7th/13th century, in N.W. Asia Minor, in the ancient Paphlagonia. The name is taken from that of the best known ruler of this dynasty, Isfendiyār Bey; in the 10th/16th century we find the name Ḳi̊zi̊l Aḥmedlu, from Ḳi̊zi̊l Aḥmed, the brother of Ismāʿīl Bey. The Byzantines called the Isfendiyār Og̲h̲lu “the sons of Amurias” or of Omur. The founder …


(451 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, the name of a quarter of Istanbul which, according to tradition, was allotted to the Greeks by Meḥemmed II after the conquest in 857/1453; for the topography, monuments, etc. see istanbul. After the conquest the seat of the Greek Patriarch was transferred from St. Sophia to the Church of the Holy Apostles, and three years later to the nearby Church of the Pammakaristos. In 994/1586, when this church was converted into a mosque (Fetḥiye D̲j̲āmiʿi), the Patriarch moved down into the Fener quarter, to establish himself finally in 1011/1603 at the Church of St. George ¶ (re-built in 1720), s…

Ibrāhīm K̲h̲ān

(396 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J.H.
, the ancestor of the Ibrāhīm-K̲h̲ānzāde family, was the son of Selīm II’s daughter Esmāk̲h̲ān Sulṭān (d. 993/1585) by her first marriage, to the Grand Vizier Soḳollu Meḥmed Pas̲h̲a [ q.v.]. According to a late tradition ( Ḥadīḳat al-d̲j̲awāmiʿ , ii, 38), perhaps based on the misconception that the sons of princesses were not allowed to live [see dāmād ], his birth was at first concealed. He first appears as ḳapi̊d̲j̲i̊-bas̲h̲i̊ , in Muḥarram 1003/September 1594. By 1019/1610 he was beglerbegi of Bosna—a promotion which was indeed contrary to Meḥemmed …

Ḏj̲ezāʾirli G̲h̲āzī Ḥasan Pas̲h̲a

(1,045 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
nicknamed Palabiyik (“scimitar-moustache”) one of the greatest High Admirals (Kapudan Pas̲h̲a) in Ottoman history, belonged to Rodosto (Tekfurdag̲h̲i) on the Sea of Marmora, where he is said to have been a slave of a merchant named Ḥād̲j̲d̲j̲ī Osman Ag̲h̲ā, after being manumitted took part as a janissary in the Austrian war of 1737—1739 and particularly distinguished himself at the battle of Krozka (Ḥiṣārd̲j̲ik) on the 23rd July 1739. At the end of the war he went to Algiers where he became a dey and finally was appointed Beg of Tlemcen. To escape the machina…


(286 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, the capital of a Ḳaẓā of the Sand̲j̲aḳ of Karasi in the Wilāyet of Brusa, with a population of Turks and Greeks (c. 8000 souls in all of whom 2000 are Greeks, in 1883 houses), is situated 5-6 miles inland from the port of Aḳčai in the uppermost corner of the Gulf of Edremid. The ruins oi the ancient Adraniyttion (’Ατραμύτ(τ)ιον, ’Αδραμύντιον in the Byzantine authors, in Idrīsī) are at Ḳaratas̲h̲ on the sea near the Skala of Kemer-Edremid. Atramyttion was destroyed by the Turcoman ΤζαχᾶΣ who had established himself in Smyrna since 1090, and after it had been …


(409 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(t. originally a.; cf. Ḳāʾim), the name for paper-money in Turkey, an abbreviation for Sehim ḳāʾimesi (“revenue bonds”); the word was originally used of drawings and documents which were written on large, long leaves in such a way that the lines ran parallel to the narrower side, as was the case with the first issues of Turkish paper-money; later the term ewrāḳi̊ naḳdīya took its place. The first ḳāʾime appeared in 1840 and were manuscript. They bore interest at the rate of 12%, were to be accepted as money at the public banks and to be current throughout the ki…

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(680 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(Damad), favourite of Aḥmad III, and his Grand Vizier for many years. He was the son of a certain ʿAlī Ag̲h̲ā and was born about 1678 in Mūs̲h̲ḳara near Ürgüb, in the district of Nigde. At the age of 20 he came to the capital, where he obtained a positon as ḥalwad̲j̲i (confectioner) in the Ancient Serai. His remarkable intelligence and his ability in writing must have attracted notice, for soon afterwards he was appointed clerk of the imperial harem, and it was in this office that he had an opportunity of becoming acquainted with Prince Aḥmad, a…


(334 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, τὸ ‘ΗρακλέωΣ Κάστρον des (Theophanes, i. 482, de Boor; ἡ τοῦ ‛ΗρακλέοΣ ΚωμόπολιΣ of Michael Attaliata, p. 136 (ed. Bonn); ‘Ηράκλεια or Χώρα τοῦ ‘ΗρακλέοΣ in the epic of Digenis Acritas; the Hiraḳla of the Arabs ed. Houtsma, Recueil etc. iii. 11; iv. 5, 249, 260, Turk. and occasionally archaised , , the Reclei, Erachia of the Crusaders (Tomaschek, Zur histor. Topographie von Kleinasien, p. 84, 88, 92), Araclie in Bertrandon de la Broquière, p. 104 et seq., ed. Ch. Schefer, was a fortress on the Byzantine frontier on the road from Cilicia to Iconium and was repeatedly tak…

Ḥusain ʿAwnī Pas̲h̲a

(552 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, four times War Minister and once Grand Vizier under ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, one of the most remarkable personalities of his age, was a native of Ispārṭa (wilāyet of Ḳōniya), where he was born in 1820, the son of a tax-farmer. When sixteen he came to Constantinople to study theology but entered the military school in which he ultimately became a teacher of military sciences. On the outbreak of the Crimean War (1853) he entered the army with rank of Lieutenant-Colonel and distinguished himself in the fig…

Ḥusain Pas̲h̲a

(670 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, called ʿAmūeja-zāde (ʿUncle’s son’), a name given him by his cousin Fāḍil Aḥmad Pas̲h̲a, was the son of Ḥasan Ag̲h̲ā, the younger brother of the great Köprülü Muḥammad Pas̲h̲a; he grew up in the golden period of the Köprülü and reached the age of thirty without distinguishing himself further than for his attachment to be delights of a life of careless ease. After the defeat of Ḳara Muṣṭafā before Vienna in 1683 and the fall of this grand vizier, who was devoted to the Köprülü, he was sent in disgrace from the capital, first of all as governor of S̲h̲āhrizūr and a year later as muḥāfiẓ (military go…


(571 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, according to Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, ed. Wüstenfeld, iv. 167 a fortress near Malaṭya, undoubtedly the ancient Claudias, which is mentioned as early as Pliny, Historia Naturalis, v. 85 as Claudiopolis, and under the later Roman Empire was one of the castra praesidiaria, the fortified permanent camps on the eastern frontier between Samosata and Melitene. It was taken from the Arabs and destroyed by Constantine V Copronymos, probably in 755 a. d., together with Malaṭya (al-Balād̲h̲urī, ed. de Goeje, p. 186 sq., Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, Taʾrīk̲h̲, under the years 133 and 138 of the Hid̲j̲ra; Barhebraeus, K…

Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳadr

(1,360 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, a Turkoman dynasty, which ruled for about a century and a half in Malaṭya and Albistān, and was founded about the middle of the xivth century. Zain al-Dīn Karad̲j̲a b. Ḏh̲u ’l-Ḳadr is said to have been the first of the line; he was succeeded by his son Ḵh̲alīl (780?, 782?—788 a. h). Karad̲j̲a conquered Albistān, Ḵh̲alīl Marʿas̲h̲, Malaṭya, Ḵh̲arput and Behesnī, but the authorities disagree as to the date of these conquests; both fell in battle with the Egyptian governors of Damascus and Aleppo. Ḵh̲alīl was succeeded by his brother Sūlī Beg (788—…


(1,059 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, an island in the Aegean Sea; the Turkish name is Sīsām-adasi, “the Island of Sesame”, for which Ṣūsām-adasi was written at an earlier period (Binis̲h̲tī, Ins̲h̲āʾ [MS. N°. 260 of the Berlin Library], f. 193b; Kiātib Celebi, Tüḥfat al-Kibār; Sussam in Tavernier, Les six Voyages, i. 359)i while the Arab geographers give the Greek name in the forms Sāmū, Sām (al-Idrīsī, Géographie, ed. Jaubcrt, ii. 127, 303), Sāmis (Yāḳūt, Muʿd̲j̲am, i. 21) or S̲h̲āmis (Abu ’l-Fidāʾ, ed. Reinaud, p. 192, 193). In the middle ages Samos was repeatedly raided by the Arabs in their inc…


(454 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, son-in-law of the Sulṭān. Under the early Ottoman Sulṭāns, princesses ( sulṭān) of the royal house were occasionally given in marriage to the vassal princes of Asia Minor, for example, to the Ḳaramānog̲h̲lu, and even to the viziers and generals of the sovereign; the case of the saint Amīr Sulṭān of Brusa, who married a daughter of Bāyazīd I is quite unique not only for that but also for later periods. We afterwards find Grand Viziers, Kapudan Pas̲h̲as, Ag̲h̲as of Janissaries, Bostānd̲j̲ibas̲h̲is and other…

Ibrāhīm Pas̲h̲a

(214 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(Ḳara), Grand Vizier under Muḥammad IV, born in 1030 (1620-21) at Ḵh̲andawerk near Bāibūrd, began his career as ¶ a lewend, then became ič ag̲h̲a (page) of the outlawed Firārī Muṣṭafā Pas̲h̲a (v. Hammer, Osm. Gesch., vi. 26), and afterwards served several Pas̲h̲as including Ḳara Muṣṭafā as kiaya (steward or agent), till on the 2nd Rabīʿ II 1081 (8th August 1671) he received the office of küčük mīrak̲h̲ōr and a few weeks later that of büyük mīrak̲h̲ōr (under and chief marshall). From the 17th Ramaḍān 1088 till the 12th Rabīʿ I 1090 (13th Nov. 1677—23rd April 1679) he was ḳapudan pas̲h̲a and at …


(439 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
, called the Siliḥdār, was born about 1140 in the district of Dewelu Ḳarahiṣār, the son of a landed Ag̲h̲a, called Meḥemmed; he began his career in 1156 in the ḥalwa-k̲h̲āne (honeybakery) of the Imperial kitchen (cf. v. Hammer, Staatsverfassung etc., ii. 31), but soon his gifts won him a position among the pages ( enderūn-i humāyūn, where he won the favour of Muṣṭafā III; When the latter came to the throne in the 21st Ṣafar 1171, he at once appointed Ḥamza his siliḥdār (sword-bearer, see v. Hammer, l. c. ii. 238 note), afterwards granted him the rank of vizier and betrothed him to t…


(702 words)

Author(s): Mordtmann, J. H.
(older forms: iznukumīd; iznikmīd; in Ibn Ḵh̲ordād̲h̲beh and Idrīsī: niḳumīdīya; in modern times officially written izmīt), the ancient Nicomedia, capital of the independent Liwā (muteṣarrifliḳ) of the same name (cf. kōd̲j̲a-īlī). The town was taken by the Sald̲j̲ūḳs on their invasion of Asia Minor at the end of the xith century and belonged to the lands of Sulaimān b. Ḳutlumus̲h̲ (470—479 = 1078—1085) who had chosen Nicaea as his capital; shortly after his death it was recaptured by Alexius I Comnenus (Anna Comnena, ed. Reifferscheidt, i. 212…
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