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Ṣalāḥ ʿAbd al-Ṣabūr

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Moreh, S.
(1931-81), leading Egyptian poet, critic, playwright, translator and journalist. He was born in al-Zaḳāzīḳ in the Delta; in his early youth he learnt the Ḳurʾān by heart and read the classical poets and the modern romantics such as Ibrāhīm Nād̲j̲ī and Maḥmūd Ḥasan Ismāʿīl. Later on, during the 1940s he joined the Ik̲h̲wān al-Muslimūn [ q.v.], but soon became disenchanted with their ideology and became interested in secular social realism, a view which he expressed in his al-Nās fī bilādī (“The people in my country”). Ṣalāḥ graduated from Cairo University in…

S̲h̲īnā

(618 words)

Author(s): Moreh, S.
, Salmān (1898-1978), ʿIrāḳī Jewish journalist, lawyer and a member of the ʿIrāḳī Parliament. Born in the Jewish quarter of Bag̲h̲dād, he received a conventional religious Jewish education in a Heder (equivalent to the Muslim kuttāb ), and then continued his primary and secondary studies at the secular Jewish school of the Alliance Française Israelite in Bag̲h̲dād, and excelled in languages. Later, he joined the Ottoman Secondary School in Bag̲h̲dād and was recruited to the Ottoman Army as a reserve officer d…

S̲h̲āʾūl

(532 words)

Author(s): Moreh, S.
, Anwar (1904-84), ʿIrāḳī lawyer, poet, short story writer, journalist, playwright and translator. He was among the first generation of Jewish writers in literary Arabic language in Arabic characters in ʿIrāḳ, headed by Sālim Isḥāḳ (1877-1948), translator for the German Embassy in Bag̲h̲dād, Salmān S̲h̲īna (1899-1978), the military attaché of the Ottoman army in the German army in ʿIrāḳ, Ezra Ḥaddād (1900-72), educator, and Murād Mīk̲h̲āʾīl (1906-86), poet. S̲h̲āʾūl was born in Ḥilla and on his mother’s side…

S̲h̲iʿr

(25,803 words)

Author(s): al-Muʿtazz, Ibn | Arazi, A. | Moreh, S. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Balim, Çiğdem | Et al.
(a.), poetry. 1. In Arabic. (a) The pre-modern period. It is the supreme ornament of Arab culture and its most authentically representative form of discourse. The ideas articulated by poetry and the emotional resonances which it conveys earn it, even in the present day, where numerous new literary forms are in competition with it, the approval of scholars and the populace alike. Despite the phonetic resemblance, s̲h̲iʿr is totally unconnected with the Hebrew s̲h̲īr , the ʿayn is a “hard” consonant which persists in the roots common to the two langu…

al-K̲h̲ālidī

(392 words)

Author(s): Moreh, S.
rūḥī , Palestine scholar, diplomat and politician, born in Jerusalem in 1864 to a well-known family of scholars tracing its origin to K̲h̲ālid b. al-Walīd [ q.v.]. He received a religious and linguistic education in Jerusalem, Nābulus, Tripoli and Beirut, and studied philosophy, law and politics at the Royal College, Constantinople. He continued his studies of political science and of ¶ philosophy and Islamic and Oriental studies at the Sorbonne; he later taught Arabic in Paris and attended the 1897 Orientalists’ Congress. In 1898 he was appointed Ottoma…

Maʿrūf al-Ruṣāfī

(4,304 words)

Author(s): Moreh, S.
(1875-1945), leading poet of modern ʿIrāḳ and one extremely audacious and outspoken in expressing his political views. He was born in Bag̲h̲dād in 1875 to his father ʿAbd al-G̲h̲anī Maḥmūd, of Kurdish descent and from the D̲j̲abbāriyya tribe (between Kirkūk and Sulaymāniyya in N. ʿIrāḳ), who was a pious man and worked as a gendarme outside Baghdad; for this reason, Maʿrūf was brought up and educated by his devoted mother Fāṭima bint D̲j̲āsim at her father’s house (she was of the Ḳarag̲h̲ūl Arabic tribe, a branch of S̲h̲ammar, who inhabited the Ḳarag̲h̲ūl quarter in Bag̲h̲dād). Maʿrūf was …

Mayy Ziyāda

(1,163 words)

Author(s): Moreh, S.
, pen name of Mārī Ilyās Ziyāda , pioneer writer of poetry in prose, essayist, orator and journalist in Arabic, French and English; translator from several European languages; and a zealous feminist who defended the case of Arab women’s education and freedom. Born in Nazareth on 11 February 1886 to a Lebanese Christian father who worked as a teacher and journalist, and a Galilee mother from a village near Nazareth, Mayy received a French education at St. Joseph’s School in Nazareth (1892-9), in ʿAyntūra in Lebanon (1900-4), and at the L…

al-Kāẓimī

(451 words)

Author(s): Moreh, S.
, ʿabd al-muḥsin b. muḥammad , S̲h̲īʿī poet of ʿIrāḳ, born in Bag̲h̲dād in 1282/1865 (but according to his daughter Rabāb al-Kāẓimī, in 1289/1872), who died in Cairo on 1 May 1935. He received elementary instruction in Arabic and Persian and then continued to study Arabic literature on his own initiative. In 1308/1890 he met D̲j̲amāl al-Dīn al-Afg̲h̲ānī [ q.v.] in ʿIrāḳ and was influenced by his revolutionary ideas. Soon afterwards he left ʿIrāḳ, but whether for reasons of political, business or poetic ambition is unclear. He travelled to Persia, India …

S̲h̲ukrī

(677 words)

Author(s): Moreh, S.
, ʿAbd al-Raḥmān (1886-1958), Egyptian poet, writer, educator and critic of North African origin whose grandfather settled in Egypt. S̲h̲ukrī was born in Port Said and graduated from secondary school in Alexandria in 1904. His grandfather as well as his father were nationalists active in Egyptian political life. S̲h̲ukrī befriended his father’s friend ʿAbd Allāh al-Nadīm [ q.v.] and backed Saʿd Zag̲h̲lūl [ q.v.]. He defended the Egyptian revolution with an anti-British poem which caused his expulsion from the Law College (1906). On the advice of Muṣṭafā Kāmil [ q.v.], he joined the …

S̲h̲āʿir

(23,851 words)

Author(s): Fahd, T. | Moreh, S. | Ben Abdesselem, A. | Reynolds, D.F. | Bruijn, J.T.P. de | Et al.
(a.), poet. ¶ 1. In the Arab world. A. Pre-Islamic and Umayyad periods. Among those endowed with knowledge and with power in ancient Arabia stands the figure of the s̲h̲āʿir , whose role is often confused with that of the ʿarrāf ( s̲h̲aʿara and ʿarafa having the same semantic value: cf. I. Goldziher, Abhandlungen , i, 3 ff.) and of the kāhin [ q.v.]. They were credited with the same source of inspiration, the d̲j̲inns (Goldziher, Die Ǧinnen der Dichter , in ZDMG, xlv [1891], 685 ff.). However, the s̲h̲āʿir was, originally, the repository of magical rather than divinatory knowledge; …