Search

Your search for 'dc_creator:( "Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)" ) OR dc_contributor:( "Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)" )' returned 75 results. Modify search

Sort Results by Relevance | Newest titles first | Oldest titles first

Rabbath Ammon

(291 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Hasmonäer | Pompeius | Syrien | Theater | Totes Meer (Textfunde) ( Rabbath bnē Ammōn, LXX Ῥαββά; Pol. Ῥαβατάμανα; assyrisch bīt ammāna; seit der Mitte des 3. Jh. v. Chr. Philadelpheia; h. Ammān). [English version] I. Bis zur Perserzeit Hauptstadt der Ammoniter (Ammon [2]); älteste Siedlungsspuren stammen aus dem Neolithikum (7./6. Jt. v. Chr.). Früheste bedeutende Reste mit reichen Gräbern auf der Zitadelle datieren in die mittlere Brz. (1. H. des 2. Jt. v. Chr.); seitdem durchgängig besie…

Bewässerung

(1,124 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Rathbone, Dominic (London)
[English version] I. Vorderer Orient und Ägypten Bewässerung meint die künstliche Zufuhr von Wasser auf Feldflächen zur Ermöglichung bzw. Intensivierung des Pflanzenwuchses. Sie unterstützt den Anbau in Gebieten des Regenfeldbaus (nachweislich bereits im 5. Jt.v.Chr. in Westiran), hat ihre bes. Bed. jedoch dort, wo sie Gebiete erst nutzbar macht, die nie von genügend Regen erreicht werden, wie das Niltal sowie die mittleren bis unteren Bereiche von Euphrat und Tigris. Bei der B. wird meist die ganze zu…

Getreide

(3,928 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Sallares, Robert (Manchester)
[English version] I. Alter Orient Die verschiedenen bespelzten und nackten Weizen- ( triticum = t.) und Gerstearten ( hordeum) zählen zu den frühesten domestizierten Pflanzen des Vorderen Orients (Q. Ǧar…

Säule

(2,743 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[English version] I. Ägypten und Alter Orient Die S. als statisch bedeutsames Bauglied in Form einer runden Stütze, ob aus Holz oder nachgebildet in Stein oder Backstein, spielte in Äg. und im Alten Orient eine unterschiedliche Rolle. In Äg. waren S. Bestandteil fast jeder Art von Architektur, von dachtragenden Holzpfosten in Wohnhäusern bis zu aufwendig gestalteten Stein-S. in Tempeln und Palästen. Mit Basen und Kapitellen versehen, verraten auch die letztgenannten ihre Herkunft von der Holz-S. Häufig nahmen S. pflanzliche Formen an; sie waren verm. immer bemalt. Im hethitisch-syrisch-palaestinischen Bereich wurden S. sparsam verwendet; in Tempeln und Palästen dienten sie häufig zur Abstützung überbreiter Eingänge. Von bes. Interesse sind als Doppeltierfiguren gestaltete S.-Basen [1. Taf. 341]. Im mesopot. Bereich waren S. zwar zu allen Zeiten als Bauelement bekannt, wurden aber sehr selten verwendet. Verm. durch Pfeiler in der Baukunst Urarṭus beeinflußt und über die Vermittlung durch Bauten des medischen Bereiches wurden S. zu einem wesentlichen Merkma…

Relief

(3,221 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
I. Egypt and Ancient Near East [German version] A. Egypt Egypt had a long tradition of the two-dimensional portrayal of individual scenes and substantial compositions, initially as paintings on pottery, later as wall paintings and reliefs ( e.g. Narmer Palette, Proto-dynastic Period, c. 3100 BC). At the latest from the time of the Old Kingdom onwards, stone steles could be added to these, …

Zoo

(933 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Müller, Stefan (Hagen)
(παράδεισος/ parádeisos, ζωγρεῖον/ zōgreîon; Latin vivarium). [German version] I. Ancient Orient Zoos are known primarily from neo-Assyrian palace sites (11th-7th cents. BC), in the sen…

Orthostats

(230 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Ancient Near East and Egypt In Near Eastern archaeology, orthostats are standing stone slabs, which in the Anatolian region originally protected the base of walls from backsplash. From the 9th cent. onwards, especially in the Neo-Assyrian palaces, they were used as mounts for static and narrative reliefs. The narrative cycles in the palaces of the rulers Assurnaṣirpal II. in Kalḫu, Sennacherib and Assurbanipal in Nineveh (Ninos [2]) are famous. In the contemporar…

Rhyton

(619 words)

Author(s): Scheibler, Ingeborg (Krefeld) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin)
(τὸ ῥυτόν/ tò rhytón). [German version] I. Object Funnel-shaped vessel for dispensing and drinking, usually ending in the head, or protome, of an animal; the name is derived from ῥύσις/ rhýsis (‘stream’) because the liquid could run out through a small hole at the bottom as long as it was not held closed [1; 2]. …

Column

(3,015 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
[German version] I. Egypt and the Ancient Orient As a statically significant building element, whether in wood or modelled from stone or brick, the column played different roles in Egypt and the Ancient Orient. In Egypt columns were a component of almost every form of architecture, from roof-bearing wooden posts in family residences to extravagantly shaped stone columns in temples and palaces. Having bases and capitals, the latter, too, betrayed the evolution from wooden columns. Columns frequently took on the shape of plants; they were probably always painted. Columns were used sparingly in Hittite-Syrian-Palestinian territory; in temples and palaces they frequently served to support very wide entrance-ways. Of particular interest are the column bases in the shape of double animal figures [1. pl. 341]. In Mesopotamian territory columns were known as a building element in all periods but were very rarely used. Probably influenced by the pillars in the Urartian building style and transmitted via constructions in Median territory, columns became an essential characteristic of Achaemenid architecture, where they were used in enormous columned halls in the palaces of  Pasargadae,  Persepolis and  Susa. The richl…

Textiles, production of

(2,346 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Pekridou-Gorecki, Anastasia (Frankfurt/Main)
[German version] I. The Ancient Orient and Egypt Weaving, which presumably developed from the plaiting of mats and baskets, is probably one of the oldest craft technologies. Owing to the climate, textiles do not survive in most of the countries of the Middle East; thus we have only a few, mostly carbonized, remains to show that different styles of weaving were already known, and various materials (Wool, Linen, flax) used, in the Neolithic Period. Great numbers of spindle whorls, mostly of fired clay, an…

Mills

(1,880 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In the Near Eastern and…

Town planning

(3,963 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Prayon, Friedhelm (Tübingen)
[German version] I. General Town planning is the designing of urban settlements (Town, city) on an organizational basis, with the central and particular functions of the town, e.g. as a port or a political centre, having an effect on its external and internal form. Most towns and cities in the Middle East and Egypt arose in the earliest times (in the Middle East from the 5th millennium onwards) at economically or strategically important points (trade routes, river crossings, anchorages). Towns and c…

Mühle

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Baatz, Dietwulf (Bad Homburg)
[English version] …

Sheep

(2,576 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Jameson, Michael (Stanford) | Ruffing, Kai (Münster)
[German version] I. The Near East and Egypt (Sumerian udu, sheep, u8, ewe, udu.nita, fat-tailed sheep; Akkadian immeru (culture word) [4]; Egyptian zr ( wp.t). The Near East lies in the natural range of the Asiatic mouflon ( Ovis orientalis), which was apparently used in various locations for the breeding of wool sheep; the earliest examples for this important step [8] come from the area of south-eastern Asia Minor/northern Levant/northern Mesopotamia in the 7th millennium BC [7. 73]. From the 7th/6th millennia BC on, the sheep played a prominent role in all times and all regions of the Near East. This is reflected in numerous pictorial depictions -- although these scarcely permit internal differentiation -- and above all in the written sources. Sheep are frequently mentioned from the beginning of the written record in Mesopotamia (end of the 4th millennium BC) [6]. Besides the importance of sheep as the primary sacrificial animal (Sacrifice) and as a supplier of milk, meat and manure, textil…

Shipbuilding

(1,703 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Briese, Christoph (Randers) | Konen, Heinrich (Regensburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Due to the lack of original finds from most regions of the ancient Orient, little can be said about shipbuilding, except for Egypt. The fact that many Syrians were employed in Egyptian shipyards and that a ship (from around 1300 BC) found at Ulu Burun, Turkey was built in the same technique as Egyptian ships indicates that a uniform shipbuilding technique was used throughout the eastern Mediterranean. Here, wooden planks were placed in the desired position w…

Stucco, Pargetting

(533 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Mouldable, quickly hardening material of gypsum, lime, sand and water, occasionally with stone powder, which was used in many places (in Egypt from the Old Kingdom onwards, c. 2700-2190 BC) to smooth walls and as a base for painting. Figurines, vases and moulds for casting metal were also made from stucco. From the Parthian period onwards (1st cent. BC), figured or geometric stucco reliefs covering long walls are attested. They were modelled by hand or using templates; in the Sassanid and early Islamic periods they were also carved.…

Navigation

(2,434 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Alonso-Núñez, José Miguel (Madrid)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt In Egypt and southern Mesopotamia navigation played a major role, especially in inland traffic but also in communication across the sea. In both countries, rivers and canals were the major traffic arteries that were even used by the gods on their mutual visits and by rulers on their tours. Beyond their ordinary significance as a means of transportation for people and goods, ships also had a religious connotation. In Egypt the vocabulary of navigation entered daily life. In both countries, boats sailed or were towed, but in southern Mesopotamia they were also often poled. River ships were varied in size: freight ships in southern Mesopotamia were able to load up to 45 m3 of grain (the ship designation includes the loading capacity: -120- gur (18,000 kg), -60- gur (9,000 kg) etc.). In Egypt the…

Palace

(3,814 words)

Author(s): Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) | Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
[German version] I. Terminology and Definition The modern term ‘palace’ is derived from the Palatine (Mons Palatinus), one of Rome’s seven hills, on which the residences of the Roman emperors were located. Palaces are buildings that a ruler uses as a residence and for representation. Depending on additional functions, they could have other names in Antiquity, relating to their respective use. Nielsen, Inge (Hamburg) II. Ancient Near East [German version] A. Structural History In the Ancient Near East and Egypt, the palace was originally a house with considerably expa…

Salt

(1,504 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Germer, Renate (Hamburg) | Giovannini, Adalberto (Geneva) | Pingel, Volker (Bochum)
[German version] I. Ancient Near East and Egypt Salt (Sumerian mun; Akkadian ṭabtu; Hittite puti; Hebrew mælaḥ; Egyptian sm.t) played an important role in all ancient Near Eastern cultures and in Egypt. In often high temperatures, the supply of salt was essential to life: salt was therefore part of workers' ordinary rations in Mesopotamia and Egypt (Rations). It was esp. used to season foods and to preserve meat and fish. In medicine, too, salt was used internally and externally. Salt was an important ingredient…

Throne

(613 words)

Author(s): Nissen, Hans Jörg (Berlin) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Hurschmann, Rolf (Hamburg)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient and Egypt Ceremonially decorated piece of furniture for gods and rulers to sit on, with a high back and often with arm-rests. The sides were often shaped as animals or animal protomae; the legs were often worked in the shape of animal legs. Apart from a few fragments in stone, most thrones were probably made of wood and hence in the area of the Near East have not been preserved, but are known from numerous depictions. Thrones were presumably usually provided with metal (gold) or ivory embellishments (cf. the numerous surviving examples from Egypt). Nissen, H…
▲   Back to top   ▲