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Freedom of Religion

(3,650 words)

Author(s): Schlenke, Dorothee | Kronauer, Ulrich | Link, Christoph | Ohst, Martin | Witte, John | Et al.
[German Version] I. Dogmatics – II. Ethics – III. Philisophy – V. History – VI. Mission I. Dogmatics Freedom of religion, as generally understood, combines freedom of belief, of conscience, and creed, as well as freedom to practice one's religion (cf. German Basic Law, art. 4, §§1, 2), in one fundamental right. Dogmatics needs to clarify the relationship between religious certainty and freedom. A statement consonant with Reformation belief would run as follows: If Christian certainty, as certainty about the …

Liguori, Alfons Maria de (Saint)

(347 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 27, 1696, Marianella, near Naples – Aug 1, 1787, monastery at Nocera de' Pagani, near Salerno). Liguori, the son of a naval officer, earned his doctorate in law at the age of 16; in 1714 he began to practice law, but left the profession in 1723 after losing a case. As a priest, he conducted popular missions. On Nov 9, 1732, he founded the Congregatio Sanctissimi Redemptoris (Redemptorists; approved in 1749 by Benedict XIV, Pope), with a ministry of preaching and pastoral care…

Müller, Karl

(304 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Sep 3, 1852, Langenburg, Württemberg – Feb 10, 1940, Tübingen). After theological training in Württemberg, Müller developed into a historian, making his mark as a medievalist with works on Louis the Bavarian, the Franciscans and the Waldenses. He gained his habilitation In Berlin in 1890, became an assistant professor there in 1882 and in 1884 in Halle, in 1886 full professor in Gießen, in 1891 in Breslau, and in 1903 in Tübingen. From his time in Gießen, Müller's life work was i…

Abbadie, Jacques

(128 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1656, Nay, Béarn – Nov 25, 1727, London). Educated in Huguenot academies (Huguenots), Abbadie was an important leader of the refugee community in Berlin from 1680 to 1689. As a field chaplain, he participated in the Ireland campaign of William III of England, and lived thereafter on benefices of the Anglican Church (beginning in 1699, he was …

Fifth Monarchists

(228 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Quintomonarchists, Fifth Monarchy Men). In republican England (III, 1.d; 1649–1653), the Fifth Monarchists did not form a constituted ecclesiastical organization of their own. Rather, the term refers to the exponents of a radically chiliastic (Millenarianism/Chiliasm) trend operative within various other groups (Congregationalists [Congregationalism], Independents, Particular Baptists [Baptists: II]; see also Dissenters). The return of Jesus Christ (Parousia) to rule for 1000 yea…

Lehnin Prophecy

(161 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] These 100 rhymed Latin hexameters were first attested in 1693 and became better known in the early 18th century. They were attributed to the Cistercian monk Hermann von Lehnin in Brandenburg (c. 1300). The verses describe suggestively the Brandenburg rulers beginning with the house of Askanier; the last figures with identifiable traits are Prince Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I and his successor. The Reformation, with the abolition of the monastery, marks the turn for the worse. Until…

Metternich, Wolf de

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Chursdorf near Küstrin [Kostrzyn]) – Dec 17, 1731, Rudolstadt). The last in the line of Reformed Metternichs from Chursdorf, Wolf de Metternich probably studied law; he began his career in the service of the margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Bayreuth (delegate to the imperial diet), which he left in 1726 to enter the service of the duke of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. Known as an alchemist, he also published theological texts under pseudonyms (Aletophilus, Hilarius Theom…

Banishment

(2,105 words)

Author(s): Schulz, Hermann | Schäfer-Lichtenberger, Christa | Pearson, Birger A. | Ohst, Martin
[German Version] I. Comparative Religion – II. Biblical – III. Church History I. Comparative Religion The terminology and conception of banishment develop primarily in the context of legal language. Commandments and prohibitions require sanctioning, must become authoritative, and are thus connected with magical incantations (Magi). In popular culture, the verbs “to ban” and “to arrest” …

Pordage, John

(174 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (1607, London – Dec 11, 1681, London), son of a grocer. Pordage studied medicine and theology at Oxford, while pursuing interests in alchemy and astrology. In 1644 he was ordained in the Anglican Church, but retired to London in 1670. Under Cromwell (England: III, 1.d), Pordage was charged with heresy. Not until the Restoration was he restored to his living (1660). Inspired by the works of J. Böhme (ET: 1642–1662) and his own visions, he developed a theosophical system (Theosophy)…

Barclay, John

(148 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 28, 1582, Pont à Mousson, Lorraine, where his father, a lawyer from Scotland, taught at the university – Aug 15, 1621, Rome) lived from 1606 until 1616 in London during the reign of James I. A roman à clef criticized celebrities of the time, but also the Puritans, the papacy, and the Jesuits ( Euphormio, 1605–1607, with indexes; Apologia, 1611). Icon Animorum (1614) reproduced national stereotypes. As a Catholic, Barclay was unable to obtain an influential position and went to Rome in 1617, where he established himself by a Paraenesis ad Sectarios (1617). In 1621, h…

Economic History

(2,672 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Wolfram | Ohst, Martin
[German Version] I. General – II. Church I. General Economic history, simply speaking, is concerned with how over the centuries people have earned their livelihood, have obtained for themselves food, clothing, and shelter, have communicated with each other sometimes across rivers, mountains, and oceans, have met, bartered (Exchange), traded (Trade), developed m…

Scotland

(2,422 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Scotland, the northern portion of the main island of Great Britain, together with the Hebrides, the Orkney Islands, and the Shetland Islands (78,764 km2), comprises the northern Highlands and the southern Lowlands. Only some 20% of its area is arable farmland. The name recalls the Celtic Scotti, who came from Ireland and formed tribal alliances with Picts, Britons (Britain), and Angles (see also Anglo-Saxons) as they expanded southwards. Scotland’s capital is Edinburgh. Since 1707 Scotland has been part…

Monarchomachs

(831 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] This polemical neologism means “fighter against (absolute) monarchy,” and was defined by William Barclay in his De regno et regali potestate (1600). The terrorism that reached its peak in the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre raised among French Protestants (Huguenots) the question of the limits of the duty of obedience and the right of resistance (Resistance, Right of) in relation to tyrannical monarchs. François Hotman, T. Beza, L. Danaeu, and Stephanus Junius Brutus (probably a pseudonym for P. du Pl…

Exomologesis

(283 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] The term ἐξομολογεῖσϑαι/ exhomologeísthai and its derivatives, adopted from the LXX and early Judaism, formed part of the earliest Christian vocabulary with the double meaning of a praising confession to God or Christ and a confession of sin (characteristic passages include Phil. 2:11 and Rom. 14:11, both of which draw from Isa. 45:23 LXX; cf. also 1 Clem. 51:3 with 52:1f. and Herm. Sim. IX, 23.4f.). The word field soon also began referring to a liturgically fixed confession of sin within the eucharistic worship service ( Did. 4.14; 14.1). In Tertullian ( De paenitentia, …

Church Polity

(28,214 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Winrich | Dingel, Irene | Ohst, Martin | Weitlauff, Manfred | Pirson, Dietrich | Et al.
[German Version] I. Early Church – II. Middle Ages – III. Reformation – IV. Modern Period – V. Present – VI. Practical Theology I. Early Church The church polity projected and in part realized in early Christianity is one of the most significant institutional inventions of Late Antiquity. Since it has survived into the present, with many modifications and variations, it also represents an element of continuity between the ancient world and the modern world. Church polity as used here means all the institutions affecting the external organization of early Ch…

Indulgence

(1,315 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin | Müller, Gerhard L.
[German Version] I. History – II. Modern Catholicism I. History Indulgences ( indulgentia as a fixed technical term since the early 13th cent.; previously also remissio, relaxatio, or absolutio generalis) are rooted in the early medieval system of scheduled penances (Repentance: IV), which allowed fixed forms of satisfaction to be replaced by other acts (“commutation”) or payment of a monetary sum (“redemption”), all meant to be equivalent. The new element in indulgences was the discontinuation of this required equivalenc…

Planck, Gottlieb Jakob

(524 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Nov 15, 1751, Nürtingen – Aug 31, 1833, Göttingen). After going through the normal course of theological education in Württemberg, Planck began teaching at the Karlsschule in Stuttgart in 1781. Appointed to a chair at Göttingen in 1784, he remained there as professor of theology and holder of other high academic and ecclesiastical offices until his ¶ death. He set out to design a new theological system reduced to the essential content of Scripture ( Einleitung in die theologischen Wissenschaften, 1794–1795); he understood this program as an attempt to combi…

Maimbourg, Louis

(172 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] (Jan 10, 1610, Nancy – Aug 13, 1686, Paris). In 1626 Maimbourg entered the Societas Jesu (Jesuits) and worked as a preacher and teacher. After anti-Jansenist (C.O. Jansen, Jansenism) polemics, from 1673 he published historical writings which championed the authority of the Catholic Church and glorified Louis XIV. After works on Arianism (Arius), the iconoclastic controversy (Veneration of images: VI), the Crusades and the fall of the empire, in 1680 and 1682 he published general accounts of Lutheranism (answered by V.L. v. Seckendorf, Commentarius de Lutheranismo,…

St. Andrews, University of

(183 words)

Author(s): Ohst, Martin
[German Version] Because Scotland maintained its allegiance to the Avignon pope Benedict XIII to the bitter end during the Great Western Schism, it was impossible for Scots to study on the continent. In 1410 the bishop of St. Andrews founded the oldest Scottish university (theology, canon law, the artes). Successor bishops added additional colleges. St. Leonard’s College was a gateway for Reformation theology in Scotland, but it was not until 1559 that leading representatives of the university gave university support to the Reformation. Their…

Repentance

(11,471 words)

Author(s): Gantke, Wolfgang | Waschke, Ernst-Joachim | Oppenheimer, Aharon | Dan, Joseph | Weder, Hans | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Examination of repentance from the perspective of religious studies must confront the problem that the term itself has no culturally neutral meaning. Many of the phenomena in other religions that Christians tend to call repentance appear in a different light when viewed in the context of different anthropological presuppositions, ¶ so that due weight must be given to the religious anthropology in question. Generally speaking, it is true to say that in almost all non-Christian religions the notion of repentance c…
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