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Syn(n)ada

(97 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σύν(ν)αδα/ Sýn(n)ada; Lat. Synnas). City in Greater Phrygia (Diod. 20,107,3 f.; Cic. Fam. 3,8,3; 5 f.; 15,4,2; Cic. Att. 5,16,2; 5,20,1; Liv. 38,15,14; 45,34,11 f.; Synnas: Plin. HN 5,105,8; Tab. Peut. 9,4; Suda s. v. Συνᾴδων: Sýnada), modern Şuhut. At the village of Docimeum (Steph. Byz. s. v. Σ.: Dokímeia kṓmē) in S.'s territory there were quarries in which an alabaster-like marble (with map) was obtained, named by the local inhabitants after Docimeum, and by the Romans after S. (Str. 12,8,13 f.: Synnadikòs líthos). Roman necropoleis, rock graves, and r…

Naresii

(72 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ναρήσιοι; Narḗsioi). Illyrian tribe (Ptol. 2,16,8) on the upper and lower Neretva/Hercegovina. The N. were among those conquered by the future Augustus in connection with his Dalmatian campaign (Dalmatae) of 35/33 BC (App. Ill. 47). Incorporated into the Roman province of Illyricum, they participated in the conventus of Narona (Plin. HN 3,143) with 102 decuriae. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography I. Bojanovski, Bosna i Hercegovina u antičko doba, 1988, 379.

Notou keras

(118 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Νότου κέρας; Nótou kéras). Modern Ras Guardafui or Ras el-Kheil in East Africa [2]. Artemidorus [3] (1st half of the 1st cent. BC) followed geographical knowledge of the time when he called the eastern point of Africa ‘the horn of the south’, that is the southern end of the known world. Ptolemaeus (Ptol. 4,7,11) acted accordingly in the 2nd cent. AD, obviously referring to modern Ras el-Kheil by NK after terms like Ἀρωμάτων ἀκρωτήριον ( Arōmátōn akrōtḗrion) or the like had come into use for the former NK [2]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 J. Desanges, Reche…

Mare Suebicum

(492 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Baltic Sea). Shallow marginal sea of the Atlantic or the North Sea ( mare Germanicum ); since about 8000 BC the connection with the North Sea has been broken in various ways. Subdivisions are the shallow Kattegat and the shallow Bælt Sea, the actual Baltic Sea with various basins and depths up to 50 m (west of Bornholm), 100 m (east of Bornholm), 249 m (east of Gotland), 459 m (east of Landort, maximum depth of the Mare Suebicum (MS)) and larger islands (Fyn and Sjæland in th…

Himeras

(83 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of two rivers in Sicily which, rising not far from one another in opposite directions on S. Salvatore (1910 m) near Polizzi (modern Imera Settentrionale, Imera Meridionale), were regarded as a single river and as the north-south central line of the island, although the eastern half of the island, thus divided, is almost twice as big as the western half. Evidence: Pol. 7,4,2; Liv. 24,6,7; Str. 6,2,1; Mela 2,119; Vitr. De arch. 8,3,7; Sil. Pun. 14,233. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Elaver

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern Allier, source at 1,430 m elevation on Mont Lozère; flows from the left side into the Liger below Noviodunum after a course of 375 km (Caes. B Gall. 7,34,2; 35,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Eupatoria

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] [1] Town in Pontus This item can be found on the following maps: Patricius The town established by Mithridates the Great in Pontus at the confluence of the Iris (modern Yeşilırmak) into the Lycus (modern Kelkit Cayı) had without a fight opened the gates to the Romans under Lucullus in 71 BC in the 3rd Mithridatic War; as a result it was totally destroyed by the king four years later. The reconstruction had not yet been completed when Pompey captured E. in 65 BC and, renamed Magnopolis, incorpor…

Uspe

(42 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] High-lying fortified chief town of the Sarmatic Siraci on the bank of the Panda [1] in the north of the Caucasus (Tac. Ann. 12,16,3); not located. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography D. D. Kacharava, G. T. Kvirkveliia, Goroda i poseleniya Pričernomor'ya antičnoi epokhi, 1991, 284.

Temnus

(169 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τῆμνος/ Têmnos, Aeolic Τᾶμνος/ Tâmnos). Aeolian city to the southeast of Dumanlı Hill on the right bank of the Hermus [2], where in Antiquity the river flowed into the Aegean (Plin. HN 5,119); its ruins (fortress of Nemrut) are at modern Görece. Although not a member of the Delian League, in the 5th and 4th cents. BC T. was able to preserve its independence of the Persian Great King (Xen. Hell. 4,8,15). Apparently, by the end of the 3rd cent. BC T. was under the rule of the Attalids (Attalus; cf. the isopoliteía treaty between T. and Pergamum StV 2, 5…

Periegetes, Perihegetes

(265 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (περιηγήτης/ perihēg ḗtēs, guide to strangers’). The periegetes was primarily a tourist institution, an insight into whose activities is provided by Plutarch (Plut. Mor. 395a; 396c; 397d; 400d; 400f; 401e). This gave rise to the antiquarian genre of peri(h)ḗgēsis, particularly popular during the Hellenistic period, in which the guiding of strangers by a periegetes took on a literary form in prose or verse; closely related to this was the travel story, i.e. the account of an actual journey, which could be used by others as a travel guide (e.g. Pe…

Grudii

(64 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] One of the five tribes in Gallia Belgica dependent on the  Nervii (the others being the  Ceutrones [1],  Levaci,  Pleumoxii and  Geidumni: Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1). Their area of settlement lay in what is now Flanders. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography TIR M 31 Paris, 1975, 133 H. Boone, Ceutrones et Nervii, in: Mémoires de la Societé d'Emulation de Cambrai 73, 1926, 105-206.

Pisye

(145 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πισύη/ Pisýē). Carian city, capital of a local koinón (together with Pladasa, [3. 443 no. 19]; other koiná were led by Mobolla and Idyma); occupied for a short time in 201 by Philippus [7] V, then regained by Rhodes (Syll.3 586; [2. no. 151]), belonging to the region of Rhodian Peraia subjugated on the basis of the Apameia agreement in 188 BC (Antiochus [5] III.) (Steph. Byz. s.v. Π., according to him also Πιτύη/ Pitýē, ethnicon Πισυήτης/ Pisyḗtēs; Konstantinos Porphyrogennetos, De Thematibus 14,33). Archaeology: traces of the acropolis, a theatre, site…

Kainon Chorion, Kainon Phrourion

(116 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Καινὸν Χωρίον; Kainòn Chōríon, Καινὸν Φρουρίον; Kainòn Phrouríon). Pontic fortification in the Paryadres mountains, captured by Pompey in 64/3 BC, the place where Mithridates VI kept the most precious treasures (Str. 12,3,31) and a secret archive (Plut. Pomp. 37,1). Kainon Chorion may have been located on the rock massif near Akgün (formerly Ahretköy) northwest of Niksar, where fortress ruins with stonework of the Hellenistic through the Byzantine periods, three flights of steps, and a cistern can be found. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Magie, 107…

Machatas

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μαχάτας; Machátas). [German version] [1] A brother-in-law of Philip II, 4th cent. BC Member of the Macedonian [1. 200] dynasty of Elimea, brother of Derdas [3], through his sister Phila brother-in-law of Philippus II (Satyrus, FHG 3,161 fr. 5 in Ath. 557c). It is possibly this M. who is mentioned as the father of Harpalus (Arr. Anab. 3,6,4; [2. 2,75-80 no. 143]), Philip (Arr. Anab. 5,8,3; [2. 2,384f. no. 780) and Tauron (IG XII 9, 197, 4; [2. 2,371f. no. 741]). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] [2] Envoy in Sparta and Elis, end of the 3rd cent. BC Aetolian who was active on beh…

Selenes oros

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Σελήνης ὄρος; Selḗnēs óros). "Mountains of the Moon, from which the lakes of the Nile receive melt water" (Ptol. 4,9,3) - according to the coordinate data in Ptol. l.c. probably modern Kilimanjaro (5895 m elevation) in northeastern Tanzania. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Seleucus mons

(137 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Town in the territory of the Vocontii (It. Ant. 357,8; It. Burdigalense 555; Seleucus is the Latin form of a Celtic personal name [1. 1462]) on the road from the Matrona Pass to Valentia (modern Valence) on the Rhodanus, modern La Bâtie-Montsaléon in the département of Hautes-Alpes, about 6 km to the northeast of Serres. Numerous finds (inscriptions, votive gifts; now in the museum of Gap) attest to its having been a frequently visited cult site (Allobrox, Silvanus, Mars, Victoria, Isis, Mithras). Magnentius was decisively…

Achaia

(723 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] In its meeting of 13 January 27 BC, the Senate resolved to set up A. as a senatorial province (Cass. Dio 53,12; Str. 17,3,25), comprising central Greece and the  Peloponnese together with  Epirus, Acarnania ( Acarnanians) including the Ionian islands, also  Aetolia,  Thessaly,  Sporades,  Cyclades excluding Astypalaea and Amorgus, but with  Euboea. A. was to be governed by a   proconsul pro praetore (residing in the Roman colony of Laus Iulia Corinthus), alongside a   legatus Augusti pro praetore and a   quaestor ; several procuratores looked after the imperial i…

Tibareni

(151 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τιβαρηνοί/ Tibarēnoí). People (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 204; Xen. An. 5,5,2; Scymn. 914; Mela 1,106; Plin. HN 6,11; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 124; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τιβαρηνία) of Scythian descent (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 159) on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.), neighbouring the Mossynoeci to the east and the Chalybes to the west and south; Cotyora was in their region. Under Darius [1] I and Xerxes, the T. were part of the 19th Satrapy (Hdt. 3,94) and served in Xerxes' army i…

Isindus

(30 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἴσινδος; Ísindos, Ἴσινδα; Ísinda). Place name ocurring with these two name forms only in Steph. Byz. s.v. Isindos as a town in  Ionia. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Orestae

(156 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ὀρέσται/ Oréstai). People in the upper Haliacmon valley around Lake Kastoria (Celetron, cf. Liv. 31,40,1-4 [1. 236-239; 3. 163-166; 4. 110-116]). Hecat. FGrH 1 F 107 and Str. 7,7,8 and 9,5,11 (cf. also Thuc. 2,80,6) numbered them among the Molossi or the Epeirotae, Str. 9,5,11 among the Macedones (for a discussion of this contradiction cf. [5]). From the 4th cent. BC under Macedonian rule (a division of O. in Alexander [4] the Great's army in Diod. Sic. 17,57,2). In 196 BC, the O. were declared independent by Rome and organised as a koinón  (Pol. 18,47,6; Liv. 33,34,…
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