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Divona

(54 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Main town of the Celtic  Cadurci in Aquitania (now Cahors. dép. Lot); sources: Ptol. 2,7,9; CIL XIII 1541 [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography A. Audin, J. Guey, P. Wuilleumier, Inscriptions latines découvertes à Lyon dans le pont de la Guillotière, in: REA 56, 1954, 297-347.

Tatta

(85 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τάττα λίμνη; Tátta límnē). Largest lake in Asia Minor (Str. 12,5,4; Plin. HN 31,84), modern Tuz Gölü ('Salt Lake'), an undrained basin in the highlands of central Anatolia (Galatia), about 900 m above sea level, mean depth 1 m, According to the season the surface area is between about 1100 km2 (summer, salinity up to 32%) and 2500 km2 (after winter rains). Salt extracted from Lake T. was considered to have healing powers (Dioscorides, De materia medica 5,109,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography Belke, 230 f.

Ager Albanus

(165 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Area between   lacus Albanus ,  Bovillae, and  Aricia, passed through by the   via Appia , originally a part of  Alba Longa. A. was famous for its fertility (Hor. Carm. 4,11,2; Sat. 2,8,16; Plin. HN 14,30) and a preferred location for fashionable country seats (Cic. Orat. 2,224; Cluent. 141; Mil. 27; 46; Rab. Post. 6; Pis. 77; Att. 4,11,1). In imperial times, it was largely in the possession of the emperor (Dig. 30,39,8), much valued especially by Domitian (Suet. Dom. 4,19; Juv…

Zagros

(273 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζάγρος/ Zágros). Alpine mountain range, with the same name today, which runs from the northwest to the southeast in southwestern Iran, stretching from the Armenian highlands to the Kūh-e Fūrġūn on the Gulf of Oman with an area of c. 1200 × 200 km. In ancient literature, the Z. is first mentioned in connection with the rebellion of Molon [1] against Antiochus [5] III as a mountain range which sometimes divides into individual chains, sometimes merges again into a single chain, and is broken up by deep gorges and valleys (Pol. 5,44,7: τὸ Ζάγρον ὄρος/ tò Zágron óros in the yea…

Fluß

(214 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[English version] Erdrelief und Klima bestimmen Größe und Richtung von Flußläufen. Die größeren Flußtäler der Oikumene bestimmten ihrerseits Handel und Wandel der Gesellschaften, deren Gebiete sie durchzogen; denn sie boten diesen sowohl infrastrukturelle als auch wirtschaftliche Vorteile. Selten stellten sie für den Verkehr unüberwindliche Hindernisse dar, sie lenkten vielmehr die Verkehrsströme in verschiedener Stärke in bestimmten Bahnen (Furten, Brücken). Die wirtschaftliche Nutzbarkeit von Fl…

Cabira

(136 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Hellenistic states (Κάβειρα; Kábeira). The residence of Mithridates VI, king of Pontus, on the southern slope of the Paryadres. Pompey elevated C. to city status as Diospolis and then embellished it. C. received numerous new names (Sebaste, Neocaesarea, Hadrianopolis); today, it is Niksar/Turkey with ruins of a large castle that reveals Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine and Seldshukian building phases. There are also inscriptions, a milestone on the g…

Ionia

(154 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἰωνία; Iōnía, Ἰωνίη; Iōníē). West Anatolian countryside between Aeolis in the north, Lydia in the east, the Aegean in the west and Caria in the south; it includes the settlement area in Asia Minor of the  Iones, who moved in there in connection with the post-Mycenaean migration and since about 700 BC were amalgamated in the Panionian Amphiktyonia (cf. the descriptions of I. in Str. 14,1; Plin. HN 5,112-120) with the cities of (cf. Hdt. 1,142-148; Aesch. Pers. 771) Miletus, Myus, Pri…

Historical geography

(3,973 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] A. Definition (CT) Historical geography (HG) is a branch of geography or, to be precise, historiography and is concerned with the ever changing relationship between human beings and the landscape. As well as verbal (literary, epigraphic, numismatic) and representational (archaeological) evidence of the past, its main source is the topographical framework of historical events. Nowadays, HG is essentially characterized by two different paths of scholarly rese…

Menophanes

(284 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μηνοφάνης; Mēnophánēs). [German version] [1] General of Mithradates VI, 88 BC General of Mithradates VI. In the first Mithradatic War, in 88 B.C., he defeated Roman troops under M'. Aquillius [I 4] (Memnon FGrH 434 F 1,22,7). It is doubtful whether this was the battle at Proton Pachion mentioned by Appianus (Mith. 72) [3. 110127]. According to Pausanias (3,23,3-5), in the same year, either on orders of the King or on his own initiative, M. conquered, plundered and destroyed Delos, killed the foreigners and Delian men there, and enslaved their wive…

Zenodotium

(84 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ζηνοδότιον; Zēnodótion). City in Osroene near Nicephorium (Arr. FGrH 156 F 33; Plut. Crassus 17,6: Ζηνοδοτία/ Zēnodotía; Cass. Dio 40,13,2), not more precisely locatable. When the pro-consul M. Licinius [I 11] Crassus marched across the  Euphrates [2] against the Parthians in the autumn of 54 BC, he felt compelled to capture the city, which was under the tyranny of a Greek called Apollonius, by force, and for this the army proclaimed him imperator. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography H. Treidler, s. v. Z., RE 10 A, 19.

Senonia

(68 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] At the end of the 4th cent. AD a province (officially Lugdunensis S.: Notitia Galliarum 4,1; Notitia Dign. Occ. 3,31; 22,19; Senonica: ibid. 1,117; cf. Laterculus 2,16) of the Septem Provinciae dioikesis of the Galliae praefectura with the civitates of Senones (as a centre of administration, formerly Agedincum), Autessiodurum, Tricasses, Meldi, Parisii, Carnutes and Autricum (modern Chartres) and Aureliani (modern Orléans). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Sauconna

(60 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name of the river usually called Arar, modern Saône, literarily attested only since Late Antiquity (cf. Amm. Marc. 15,11,17: Ararim quem Sauconnam appellant, 'Arar which is called S.'; Avitus, Epist. 83 = MGH AA 6,2). The name had been recorded earlier, however, e.g. as a term for dea Souconna in Châlon-sur-Sâone (ILS 9516). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Pedasum

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πήδασον; Pḗdason). Small settlement (πολίχνιον/ políchnion) in the territory of Stratoniceia in Caria (Str. 13,1,59); its precise location has yet to be established [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 W. Ruge, s.v. Pedasa (2), RE 19, 27.

Tibareni

(151 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τιβαρηνοί/ Tibarēnoí). People (Hecat. FGrH 1 F 204; Xen. An. 5,5,2; Scymn. 914; Mela 1,106; Plin. HN 6,11; Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 124; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τιβαρηνία) of Scythian descent (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 159) on the southern coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos I.), neighbouring the Mossynoeci to the east and the Chalybes to the west and south; Cotyora was in their region. Under Darius [1] I and Xerxes, the T. were part of the 19th Satrapy (Hdt. 3,94) and served in Xerxes' army i…

Geology

(383 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Geology, in modern understanding, is the science of physical nature (mineralogy, metallurgy) and of the structure, formation, and development of earth's crust (tectonics) as well as the forces that shaped this development (‘dynamic geology’). Antiquity only knew the first beginnings of a comparable scientific discipline [1. 8-50; 2]. Geological technologies ( Mining,  Quarries) were implemented even before specific geological questions began to be studied in Near Eastern theories …

Teuthrania

(163 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Τευθρανία; Teuthranía). Region or its capital in the Mysian valley of the lower Caicus [1]. The name is derived from Teuthras, who reportedly took in Auge [2] and her son Telephus [1] as guests when they were washed ashore in Mysia. The region is generally located from the Aeolian coast between Atarneus and Cisthene (at modern Gömeç) inland about as far up as the upper Macestus. The site of the city (Str. 13,1,69; Plin. HN 5,126) has been located (though without certainty) near mo…

Elaver

(39 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] River in Aquitania, modern Allier, source at 1,430 m elevation on Mont Lozère; flows from the left side into the Liger below Noviodunum after a course of 375 km (Caes. B Gall. 7,34,2; 35,1). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Tyndaris

(369 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Theatre | Coloniae | Punic Wars (Τυνδαρίς/ Tyndarís). Greek city on the northern coast of Sicily between Mylae [2] and Agathyrnon, modern Tíndari. T. was founded in 396 BC by Dionysius [1] I to protect the Greeks against Carthage. It was settled mainly by Messenians, who, driven from Naupactus and Zacynthos after the Peloponnesian War, had offered their services to the tyrant and named the city after the Tyndaridae, a Messenian version of the D…

Arcathias

(110 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀρκαθίας; Arkathías). Son of  Mithridates VI (different from Ariarathes IX [1; 2; 3]), led 10,000 horsemen from Lesser Armenia into the opening battle of the Mithridatic Wars (autumn of 89 BC) at the Amnias against  Nicomedes IV; he marched with a Pontic army in 88/87 BC through Macedonia and organized the conquered territories into  satrapies. He fell ill at the Tisaeum in Magnesia and died (App. Mith. 63-65; 137; 156). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 Magie, 1105 note 41 2 B.C. McGing, The Foreign Policy of Mithridates VI Eupator King of Pont…

Zerbis

(45 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] Name given in Plin. HN 6,118 to a left-bank tributary of the Tigris in Adiabene. It remains questionable whether he meant the Lycus [14] (modern Al-Zāb al-Kabīr, 'Greater Zab') or the Caprus [2] (modern Al-Zāb al-Ṣaġīr, 'Lesser Zab'). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
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