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Mons Nebrodes

(65 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Νεβρώδη ὄρη/ Nebrṓdé όrē). Densely-wooded mountains, which ‘rise opposite Etna, lower than it, but broader’ (Strab. 6,2,9); the modern Monti Nébrodi and Monti Madoníe in north-western Sicily (north-west of Etna), where according to Sil. 14,236f. both rivers known as Himeras rose. Probably named after nebrós/νεβρός, ‘stag’ (Solin. 5,12). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Ziegler, s.v. N., RE 16, 2157.

Labdalum

(95 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Λάβδαλον; Lábdalon). Site at the northern rim of the Epipolai-Plateau of Syracusae, where a fortress was built by the Athenians in 414 BC. This was taken from them by Gylippus shortly after his arrival (Thuc. 6,97,5; 98,2; 7,3,4). Fabricius located it east of Scala Greca, above the descent of the antique roadway Syracusae - Megara from the plateau. Before him, it was thought to lie more to the west. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography K. Fabricius, Das ant. Syrakus (Klio-Beih. 28), 1932, 19f. H.-D. Drögemüller, Syrakus, 1968, 15f., fi…

Mygdonia

(367 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Μυγδονία; Mygdonía). [German version] [1] Region in northwestern Asia Minor Region in northwestern Asia Minor whose name is derived from the Thracian Mygdones who, like the Doliones and the Mysi (Mysia), migrated to the northwestern part of Asia Minor in the 12th cent. BC. The area in which they settled was bordered at the northwest by the Dascylitis (Δασκυλῖτις, now Kuş Gölü), at the northeast by Apameia [1]; in the southwest their settlements reached to the Mysian Olympus [13] (modern-day Uludağ), in t…

Makaron Nesoi

(326 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(αἱ τῶν μακάρων νῆσοι; hai tôn makárōn nêsoi, Lat. insulae fortunatae, ‘Islands of the blessed'). [German version] [1] Mythical country Since Hes. Op. 167-173, the mythical country to which heroes are transported - instead of to dark, mouldy Hades like ‘normal people’ - when their lives on earth are over. The concept of the makaron nesoi (MN) is closely linked with the idea of Elysium (Hom. Od. 4,561ff.) as the place were the blessed reside after death (cf. Pind. Ol. 2,68-80; Hdt. 3,26; Aristoph. Vesp. 640; Eur. Hel. 1677; Aristot. Protrepticus fr. …

Arginusae

(121 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sontheimer, Walther (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ἀργινοῦσ(σ)αι; Arginoû(s)sai). Name of three small islands at the southern entry into the  Lesbos Sound at the Aeolian coast (main island modern Garip Adası), famous because of the naval victory of the Athenians over the Spartans under the leadership of the strategos  Callicratidas, which was followed by the ‘Trial of the Generals of the Arginusae’ (406 BC). In this trial, the Athenians condemned the leading strategoi en bloc, because of their failure to rescue survivors and casualties of the storm which followed the battle.  Socrates was the …

Morgetes

(106 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] People (named after their king Morges) originally settled in Lower Italy, who migrated from there (Antiochus FGrH 555 F 9: M. driven by the Oenotri; otherwise F 2) to Sicily (Strab. 6,2,4), where the city of Morgantina has preserved their name (Antiochus l.c.; Steph. Byz. s.v. Μοργέντιον/ Morgéntion). Murgantia, the name of a city of the Samnites, is probably also related (Liv. 10,17,3; 11). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Falco, Giulia (Athens) Bibliography G. Devoto, Gli antichi Italici, 31967  J. Bérard, La colonisation grecque, 21957  R. Peroni, Enotri, Ausoni,…

Physcus

(279 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan)
(Φύσκος/ Phýskos). [German version] [1] Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes Carian city in Peraia in Rhodes (Str. 14,2,4; 29; 5,22; Ptol. 5,2,11: Φοῦσκα/ Phoûska; Stadiasmus maris magni 272), deme of the polis of Lindus in Rhodes [1. 792; 2. no. 51]. Ancient remains of a Classical and Hellenistic fortress are on Asar Tepe, 2 km to the northwest of Marmaris, above an excellent natural harbour on the bay. Inscriptions: [1. 2-5; 2. no. 1-7, 57]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography 1 P.M. Fraser, G.E. Bean, The Rhodian Peraea and Islands, 1954 2 C. Blinkenberg, K.F. Kinch, Lindos, …

Notium

(164 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Engelmann, Helmut (Cologne)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Education / Culture (Νότιον; Nótion). Port founded by Aeolian settlers at the mouth of the River Avci into a bay, now silted up, of the Gulf of Kuşadası, c. 13 km to the south of Colophon (near modern Değirmendere). In natural commonality of interests with Colophon, N. soon developed out the shadow of this inland city, which was still affluent at the beginning of the 3rd cent. BC, from that point also bore the description ‘Colophon-on-Sea’ (Κολοφῶν ἡ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ / Kolophōn hē epì thalássēi [1]) and was connec…

Issorium

(48 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
[German version] (Ἰσσώριον; Issṓrion). Hill on the northern city border of Sparta, with a sanctuary to Artemis Issoria (Plut. Agesilaus 32,3; Polyaenus, Strat. 2,1,14; Nep. Agesilaus 6,2), possibly the heights known today as Klaraki. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Lienau, Cay (Münster) Bibliography F. Bölte, s.v. Sparta, RE 3A, 1350ff.

Salluvii

(303 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Sauer, Vera (Stuttgart)
[German version] Ligurian Celtic tribe (Liv. 5,35,2; Liv. Per. 60 f.; 73: S.; Str.  4,1,3; 4,1,5 f.; 4,1,9; 4,1,11 f.; 4,6,3 f.: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Plin. HN 3,36: S.; 3,47; 124: Sallui; Flor. Epit. 1,19,5: S.; App. Celt. 12,1; Avien. 701: Salyes; Ptol. 2,10,15: Σάλυες/ Sályes; Obseq. 90; 92: Sallyes; Amm. Marc. 15,11,15: S.) in the hinterland of Massalia between the Rhodanus (modern Rhône) and the Alpes Maritimae. Their central oppidum has been excavated near Entremont; there was probably a local cult connected with the têtes coupées ( cf. the cephalophoric stones in the Museum of A…

Lilybaeum

(276 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sicily | Christianity | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Commerce | Phoenicians, Poeni | Punic Wars | Punic Wars (Λιλύβαιον/ Lilýbaion, Λιλύβη/ Lilýbē; Latin Lilybaeum, -on). Foothills (modern Capo Boeo) and town (modern Marsala) in the most western part of Sicily, c. 140 km from Carthage; founded by the Carthaginians and heavily fortified after the Punic base Motya had been destroyed in 397 BC by Dionysius I. The fortress defied repeated attacks by the Greeks (in 368 under Dionysius, …

Ithome

(290 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Ἰθώμη; Ithṓmē). [German version] [1] Chalk mountain in Messenia This chalk mountain (modern Vurkano), rising to 802 m and dominating the Messenian plain, together with Eua, its southern secondary summit (modern Hagios Vassilios), forms the natural acropolis for the entire region of Messenia, and its centre in legend and history. The lengthy siege of Mt. I. was the main topic of Myron of Priene's prose novel on the First Messenian War (Paus. 4,9-13). During the major uprising of the helots in 464 BC, the…

Nonacris

(251 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Νώνακρις; Nōnakris). [German version] [1] Place in Arcadia Place in Arcadia (Paus. 8,18,7; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ν.; Suda s.v. Ν.; Hesych. s.v. Ν.; IG V 2, p. 83) in the valley of the upper Crathis [1] on the north-eastern slope of Aroania Ore (modern Helmos), famous because of the Styx waterfall, which was located in the N. area; N. is mentioned in classical literature only in this connection. If in the 5th cent. BC it was still an independent town (Hdt. 6,74), in the 4th cent. BC N. Belonged to Pheneus. I…

Peirus

(66 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Πεῖρος; Peîros). River in western Achaea, the source is on the northern slopes of the Erymanthus [1], flows past Phara and into the Gulf of Corinth 2 km northeast of Dyme [1], today again called P. (formerly Kamenitsa). Cf. Hdt. 1,145; Str. 8,3,11; Paus. 7,18,1f.; 22,1. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Bibliography R. Baladié, Le Péloponnèse de Strabon, 1980, 72-74  Müller, 822.

Cyane

(115 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Falco, Giulia (Athens)
[German version] (Κυάνη). Small stream steeped in legend that has its origin about 9 km south-west of Syracusae (as the crow flies) in a source of the same name and that after about 20 km, together with the Anapus, flows through a wide swampy area into the Great Harbour of Syracusae; modern Ciani. According to Ovid (Met. 5,413ff.), the nymph C., the wife of Anapus, tried to stop Hades (Pluto) when he was deflowering Kore and dissolved in tears on the spot where he split the earth and went down int…

Olenus

(266 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Achaeans, Achaea (Ὤλενος; Ṓlenos). City in Achaea between Dyme [1] and Patrae (Plin. HN 4,13; Steph. Byz. s.v. Ὠ.), in whose territory the Peirus debouched into the Bay of Corinth (cf. Paus. 7,6,1; 7,18,1f.; 7,22,1); this can be presumed to be in the coastal plains near the modern villages of Kaminia and Tsoukalaika (cf. the distance data in Str. 8,7,4; Paus. loc. cit.). O. was one of the twelve Achaean cities existing in the Mycenaean period and was a member of the old Achaean League (Hdt. 1,145; Pol. 2,41,7; damiourgoi from O. me…

Rhion

(196 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[German version] (Ῥίον; Rhíon). Flat coastal projection in Achaea, about 8 km to the northeast of modern Patras [1. 226-227; 2. 199 f.], modern Rhio, which, with Antirrhion (or also R. or Ῥίον τὸ Μολυκρικόν/ Rhíon tò Molykrikón after Molycrium; modern Antirio) to the north across the approximately 2 km wide sound (also called R., cf. Pol. 4,64,2; Liv. 27,29,9; Mela 2,52), forms the western entrance to the Gulf of Corinth (Corinth, Gulf of) (Thuc. 2,86,3; Ps.-Scyl. 35; 42; Scymn. 478; in Str. 8,2,3, as in Ptol. 3,15,5 incorrectly…

Pontus

(931 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Niehoff, Johannes (Freiburg)
(ὁ Πόντος/ ho Póntos, Lat. Pontus). Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) [German version] I. Location Region on the south coast of the Black Sea (Pontos Euxeinos) between Paphlagonia (west), Colchis (east) and Cappadocia (south), divided into a narrow northern coastal plain with various Greek towns (cf. Amisus, Cotyora, Pharnaceia, Trapezus) and an interior south of the northern Anatolian frontier mountain range around Iris [3] and Lycus [19], still known into the 1st cent. BC as Καππαδοκία ἡ περὶ τὸν Εὔξεινον/ Kappadokía hē perì tòn Eúxeinon (Pol. 5,43,1; cf. ἡ πρὸς τῷ Πόντῳ Καππαδοκία/ hē …

Lacus Fucinus

(190 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Bove, Annalisa (Pisa)
[German version] A lake that often overflows because it has no outlet (155 km2, 655 m above sea level) in the area of the Marsi between Sulmona and the national park of Abruzzo. Caesar contemplated draining it (Suet. Iul. 44), Augustus prevented it (Suet. Claud. 20), Claudius realized it in part by laying a 5.65 km long drainage to the Liris (Suet. Claud. 20f.), under Nero the project was stopped (Plin. HN 36,124). According to CIL IX 3915, renewed flooding in AD 117 made it necessary to reclaim the borderin…

Uranopolis

(169 words)

Author(s): Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(Οὐρανόπολις/ Ouranópolis). [German version] [1] City on Acte City on Acte (Athos I), founded by Alexarchus, the younger brother of Cassander; according to Plin. HN 4,37 and Str. 7a,1,35, it is to be found on the isthmus of Acte. U. can be connected with the extensive ruins south-west of the modern Ierissos, the extent of which agrees with the size of the city given by Str. loc cit. (30 stadia). U. was probably built c. 315 BC, minted its own coins according to a standard uncommon in Macedon at the time, but does not appear to have lasted long and may have merged wit…
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